Glossary All Terms

Ahead of schedule

An activity that has been completed before the date on the programme

Ambient Counter

A servery at room temperature. Not heated or chilled


A revision or modification to a contract document.


Hotel consumables like soap or shampoo in guestrooms.

American National Standards Institute(ANSI)

The umbrella body for standardisation in the USA,publishers of the standards of each of the 100 or so sponsor organisations

American Society for the Testing of Materials (ASTM)

A source of voluntary consensus standards on materials, products, systems and services, republished every year.


Describes a currency strengthening in response to market demand rather than by official action.


An elaborate and often ceremonious meal for numerous people, often including speakers or presentations. Table set up is usually round tables seting 6-12 people.

Banquet Chairs

Stackable chairs which are light (if made from aluminium) and durable. They are transported using banquet trolleys and stored in the banquet store. They are used in various layouts eg classroom, meeting room and banquet.
Strength: BS4875 (2001) – most chair models to level 5 (severe contract use). This standard consists of a number of tests to determine the strength chairs. Tests carried out externally at a UKAS accredited testing house (FIRA) Stability: BS7945 (1999) This standard consists of a number of tests to determine the stability of chairs. Tests carried out externally at a UKAS accredited testing house (FIRA) Flammibility: All fabric / foam combinations used on furniture should comply with BS7176 and BS5852 Ignition source 0,1 and 5 (unless stated otherwise) These standards consist of tests to establish the flammability of fabrics when used in conjunction with a specific foam type. These tests are carried out by the fabric suppliers at various UKAS accredited testing houses. Certificates shold be made available to support all claims made above

Banquet Tables

Stackable, folding tables which are light and durable. They are transported using banquet trolleys and stored in the banquet store. They can be used in various layouts eg meeting room, boardroom and banquet. They come in different shapes and sizes eg round and rectangular.

Strength and Stability: All tables should comply with the strength requirments of BS4875 (2001) part 5 to level 5. A series of tests to determine the strength and stability of tables. These tests are carried out externally at a UKAS accredited testing house (FIRA) Certificates shold be made available to support all claims made above

Bed linen

Can be made from a blended yarn of 50% cotton and 50% polyester or 100% coltton . The 50/50 blend is called a "no-iron" content, as the polyester fibers help give the sheet "memory" of what shape it is supposed to be in after enduring a commercial laundry - a flat, wrinkle free surface.This "no-iron" feature mostly comes from a resin finish applied to the product.When the care instructions are followed correctly, 50/50 sheets do hold up to their promise of a "no-iron" product.Overall, the 50/50 sheet is the perfect combination of cotton for hand, breathability, and comfort, and polyester for strength, extended life, and reduced processing costs. The higher the cotton content beyond 50%, the more care (ironing, lower wash and dry temperatures.Color selection, etc.) a sheet will require.This is important to note as today, many boutique hotels are using 100% cotton products.Also, 100% cotton sheets will shrink more than 50/50 sheets, which can become a problem given the thicker beds being used today. Thread count refers to the number of yarns or threads per square inch after the product is fully manufactured.This number, usually expressed as a number following a capital "T" (for thread count), is one of the key determining factors in the quality and luxury (softness) of the sheet.A T-180 is called a "percale" sheet, and this is the standard hospitality market sheet.AT-128 or T-130 is called a "muslin" sheet, and this is the standard health care/institutional market item. The higher the thread count, the finer (thinner) the yarns used and the closer together the yarns are woven.It is for this reason that high-end retail sheets(and sheets used by some boutique hotels) are often T-220, T-250, or even T-310.


Spring Mattresses: This is the most common type in the U.K. The number of springs used and the thickness of the metal affect the feel and determine support the better the support.

Open Springs are generally found in the mid price range of beds. Rows of hour glass shaped springs are connected top and bottom by a spiral wire and the edge of the unit is normally strengthened by a retaining flat or round rod edge.

Pocket Springs are rows of smaller, lighter parallel or barrel shaped springs, each in a separate fabric pocket which slightly compresses the spring. The rows of springs are clipped, tied or glued together. Pocket springs allow for a more flexible response, giving a higher degree of body support and are generally found in the mid upper price bracket. Non Sprung Mattresses: Most non sprung mattresses are made from latex.

Its important that the bed height is coordinated with the bedside furniture and headboard. In some rooms it is necessary to raise the height of the underside of the box spring to allow access to electrical outlets located on the wall below the bed. If this is done the height of the top of the bed stays at 54 cm. The boxspring is made slimmer On carpet we normally use rollers (not wheels) at the bed head mushroom sliders at the foot. The mattress should be labelled so that housekeeping can keeptrack of whether it has been turned. Flame Retardency Crib 7 (min crib 5) Sealy has FIRA (Furniture Industry Research Association) Gold Award,


is the continuous systematic process of measuring and assessing products, services and practices against those of recognized leaders in the field to determine the extent to which one can improve the organisation's performance.

Environmental and energy performance benchmarking is an internal management process and tool designed to provide management with reliable and verifiable information on an ongoing basis to determine whether an hotels energy and environmental performance is meeting the criteria set by the management

Bid or quotation

Price at which a supplier has offered to sell the product with terms and conditions.


Bedding that keeps a person warm in bed. Popular types include wool, nylon, acrylic, cotton, polyester, and blends of various natural and synthetic materials.

Bone china

Bone china is made from a combination of 25% china stone, 25% china clay and 50% calcined cattle bones. Bone china has been produced in since the early 19th century. Often used in fine dining rooms

British code of advertising

Information from DTI

BSI British Standards

BSI British Standards is the National Standards Body of the UK and develops standards and standardization solutions to meet the needs of business and society. They work with government, businesses and consumers to represent UK interests and facilitate the production of British, European and international standards. More British Standards’ products and services help organizations to successfully implement best practice, manage business critical decisions and achieve excellence. This includes a wide range of published information and commissioned services delivered under the BSI Business Information brand. Website

Budget (FF&E OS&E)

A plan for determining in advance the expenditure of money. It consists of a summary of the expected expenditure for the different departments and sections along with a detailed list of items which can be 500 pages long.

Budget control

There are three stages of budgetary control; the first is when the quotation is checked against the budget; the second when commitments are about to be made to vendors and checked against budget. The third is when the invoice is checked against committment.

Budget Controller

The budget controller is responsible for ensuring that a realistic detailed budget is prepared at the earliest possible time.

Budget Listing (FF&E, OS&E)

A plan for determining in advance the expenditure of money. A detailed list of items which can be up to 500 pages long, corresponding to the FF&E and OS&E Budget.


A meal set out on a table or buffet units for ready access and informal service. For hot buffets chafing dishes are normally required.

Buyers Comment Banquet Furniture

Plans of the relevant areas should be submitted by the purchaser to Burgess who will produce furniture layouts Purchaser should then confirm requirements with operations, technical services and ID before issuing specifications Meeting room furniture should be specified in accordance with Operator's Meeting room guidelines. All items to comply with local fire safety standards, all other local standards and with operators standards. Purchaser to ensure that fire certificates are provided where required by local fire officer Total quantities may be limited by local regulations. to be confirmed by purchaser

Buyers Comment Banquet Tables

Tables should be: Stackable, folding frame with safety lock Aluminium edge/frame:antique brown, nylon flock top Height 76cm Strengthened and easy to handle locking mechanism Improved leg frame for even greater strength pewter hammer powder coated frame finish Gey flock coated table top finish which reduces noise & cloth slippage Table tops are aluminium edged for maximum protection

Buyers Comment Banqut Chairs

Normally specified by ID/operator, ie stalye, fabric and frame colour. Steel may be considered if ballroom and meeting room areas are small As it is likely that ballroom chairs will be used on occasions in the Meeting rooms it is recommended that the colour schemes in these two areas are coordinated.

Buyers Comment Electrical Equipment in Guestrooms

Comments guestroom electrical operating equipment Electrical power connections required . Installation co-ordinated with project manager. Co-ordinate with guestroom furniture To be compatible with local electricity supply and conform to local electrical standards Key coordination section, all items to be checked in sample guest room and approved by ID . Confirm all items are needed and no double purchases. The latest equivalent equipment should be purchased.

Buyers Comment Executive Tables

Warerite Realwood PP8807 white oak top, edge to match,chrome finish underframe System C selection of table top finishes frames can be finished in a choice of polished stainless steel, black texture, or a wide selection of epoxy powder coated colours modesty panels available and easily fitted Table height 76cm

Buyers Comment Hairdryer

The room must be protected by a residual current operated circuit breaker not exceeding 30MA This will cut off all electrical supply when in contact with water. The hairdryer must be installed by a qualified electrician and out of reach of a person using the bath or shower Purchaser to check if shaver socket is required with hairdryer

Buyers Comment Table Linen

Purchaser to buy according to final table sizes. Purchaser to confirm quantites, sizes, colours once table sizes and seating capacity for all food and beverage outlets Table Linen- Wash Test needed,if necessary an allowance for shrinkage should be made when sizing. F+B policy for using some tables unclothed for some meals to be checked. Colour by ID but white preferred for table linen and strong colours definitely avoided.
Under cloth has drop of 30 cm after 5 washes ID, operator, owner 's representative to attend FB presentation at which final selection is made.

Buyers comments
  • Normally a guestroom sample review is required to review the FFE and OE

  • Normally a tabletop sample review is required to review the FFE and OE

  • Buyer to confirm that, where appropriate, equipment purchased is compatible with other related equipment

  • Equipment should be functional, durable, easy to use and maintain.

  • Buyer should take into account operating cost of the equipment over a long period .

  • Buyer should take into account replacement costs and cost of consumables

  • Buyer should take into account of energy costs of electrical equipment like minibar . Emphasis on energy efficiency.

  • Equipment should conform to all local and international stanards including fire, safety, electrical and health and hygiene

  • The appropriate certification for products should be obtained by the purchaser.

  • Futher input from designer is required for equipment which is visible to the public and where there is a choice of colours or finish e.g. ashstands, notice boards, menus, china, table linen,uniforms, meeting room wall rail.

  • Some requirements depend on final layouts .

  • Purchaser to arrange for proposals from suppliers and then review with operations e.g. staff restaurant, lockers, railex, shelving.

  • For some equipment final specification may change due to technological or product evolution. In this case the latest equivalent equipment should be purchased e.g. photocopiers, TVs, faxes, computers, videos, fitness equipment

  • Interface with local services and support should also be considered eg compacter, faxes, photocopiers

  • Some lists provided will require significant adjustments to suit operation eg uniforms, fitness center

  • Buyer to organise samples for approval by owner and operator

  • Buyer to confirm that, where appropriate, equipment purchased is compatible with other equipment
    e.g. plate covers, plate rings, cloches, plate dispensers - with plates. tray racks and tray trolleys with trays banqueting tray stand with banqueting trays bed linen, blankets, mattress protectors with beds. refuse bins, trucks with local collection lorry glass and plate racks with dish washers table linen with tables

  • Availability of local support, maintenance and service.

  • Purchaser should confirm that where appropriate local support, consumables and spare parts are available e.g.. fax, photocopier, fitness equipment, TV system, safe deposit lockers, vacuum cleaners, computer equipment, laundry carpark control, safes, security cameras If this is not available locally then details of the supplier should be agreed with operations

Buyers Comments Apartments

-Is cooking in this budget -microwave and cooking rings ? -Are tablecloths required?

-How will you handle clients dirty linen? Will it be laundered by hotel?

Buyers Comments Back of HOuse

For shelving the supplier is normally asked to prepare a proposal based on the plans. Plans of the relevant areas with details of what will be stored should be submitted by purchaser to the recommended supplier for layout and quotation

Compacter may be in local garbage collection contract Appropriate wheely bins to be purchased Are there any high ceilings for which a personnel lifter is required to access ceiling

Security camera system may be in main contract What flags are required? How are external villas being cleaned? Do we need a vac cleaner in each apart/suite Double check this list with main kitchen contract to ensure that there are no double or nil counts Purchaser to confirm that, where appropriate, equipment purchased is compatible with other related equipment
Is a resuscitator required? Are there any local regulations to conform to? Are there any high ceilings for which a personnel lifter is required Final office furniture requirement should be in accordance with architects plans and operators requirement . A generic list has been provided How many key cabinets required? What safes required? Check floor loading OK for the safes Are deposit lockers required at front desk and or conference center How is cash being handled-deposit boxes? Hw are badges being handled? Brother labeling machine? Photocopiers and faxes? Are these rented or purchased? Are the following required. If required then it should be a local purchase with maintenance. Often the hotel will arrange this Time & attendance system (including camera) Staff restaurant card system Credit card electronic Paging system (often part of PABX ) and or two way radio Security camera system allowance (main contract?)

Check cup /glass baskets are appropriate size e.g. plate covers, plate rings, cloches, plate dispensers - with plates. tray racks and tray trolleys with trays Lockers come in tiers of 1, 2, 3, lockers per complete unit.

What male female mix is required?

What colours required

Must correspond to architects plans including room height Dining seating according to Operations and plans

Buyers Comments Banquet Furniture

Purchaser would normally get conference furniture layouts prepared by supplier to confirm quantities of furniture with operations

What chair style,colour frame, fabric colour, required What table veneer required

What depth of school room table? 45 or 60cm

Buyers Comments Front of House

What colour and finish required for trolleys and ashstands?

Buyers Comments Guestroom

Bathroom fittings may be in main contract .

Colours and finishes to come from designer eg bins, hairdryer, shaving mirror, kettle,tray

Minibar must fit cabinet

Fire exit plans according to layout and local codes. Tissue box holder Is this built in ? Telephone hand sets –Are these part of OE

Movie system- Is this revenue share? For equipment with doors eg mini bar, safe confirm side of door for hinges .( left/right ) should be confirmed by buyer What size of beds?

Linen to be appropriate size and spec to correspond to standards and local conditions.

Linen should be tried in sample room.

Linen should be appropriate to mattress dimension.

Is bed skirting required as OE or other package? Should be appropriate to bed, base and legs.

Duvet or blanket?

Linen confirm bottom sheet and duvet only ie no 2nd sheet

Buyers Comments Room Service

How many ice machines and shoe polishers required? Are ice machines OE or in kitchen contract Are room service trolleys in OE or kitchen contract?

Room service trolleys too high

Buyers Comments Tableware

Where does the hotel information pack go? Is a piano required in bar? What colours required for table linen? What colour for conference cloth and table skirting? Some countries require by law measure indications on glass eg 2cl or 4cl,25cl

What size of wine glasses are required? What is required for guestrooms?

Does hotel require different lines of glassware, flatware and chinaware for the differencet outlets? The fewer the simpler for operations.

How is coffee served eg at breakfast . China pots? Themos? StSt pot? Chafing dishes Are these part of OE budget for buffet. Are they built in? Menus and wine lists. Are these done locally or do you want leatherette type? Are Banqueting food display mirrors required? Are coffee and tea urns 11 liters or thermoses 3Litres for banqueting? Bodum accessories for coffee and other bodum accessories to be detailed by operations

RBTh-s.xls Local speciality items should be detailed by operations. This includes equipmant for speciality dishes eg rice, chop sticks, lazy Sue, fondu set, pizza dishes, mobile buffets, barbeque, shawarma, special bowls etc

Buyers Comments Washroom

Washroom equipment may be in main contract If not Interior Designer normally specifies the fittings Final requirement should be in accordance with architectural plans

Buyers CommentsConference and Banqueting

What colour of ashstands, bins, crowd control posts, information boards, chrome, brass? Are electric screens required as part of Operating Equipment? The mix of electric and manual screens to be established

Are screens hung on rails or mobile?

Appropriate AV equipment should be purchased according to requirements and size of rooms Are slide projectors required?

Is a piano required for banqueting? Colour?

Carton Markings and Packing Lists

It is essential that vendors mark the cartons with the order number and codes cross referenced to a packing list that enable their exact contents to be determined before they are opened


FF&E Case goods are defined as furnishings made with wood. These products are typically large items made off site then shipped by manufacturer in case crates (hence the name).

In general FF&E Casegoods for the guestrooms include:

Desk Entertainment Unit/armoire Luggage rack Bedside table unit Coffee table(if wood) Wooden wall backing for flat screen TV. (not always required) Headboard/bedside table unit Bench at end of bed + window (not always required )

Wardrobe Sometimes this is in FFE casegoods or sometimes built in as main contract item. If built in then often the sliding door is part of FFE casegoods.

Catering Equipment Suppliers Association (CESA)

Cesa represents over 100 companies who supply commercial catering equipment - from utensils to full kitchen schemes. Buying from a CESA member gives you the security of knowing that you are buying from a business that wants to ensure that you get professional advice and service


A ceiling-mounted fixture with two or more arms bearing lights. Modern chandeliers are often very ornate, containing dozens of lamps and complex arrays of glass shapes to scatter light in complex, attractive patterns.


Chines Contratcs

Take care with contracts

Chinese and Westerners often approach a deal from opposite ends. To a Westerner, starting with a standard contract, altering it to fit the different circumstances, and signing the revised version, seems straightforward. Commercial law is ingrained in our thinking. But traditionally, commercial law scarcely existed in China and certainly indicated bad faith. The early appearance of a draft legal contract was seen as inappropriate or, more likely, irrelevant, because it carried no sense of commitment. The business clauses might form a useful agenda, but obligations came from relationships, not pieces of paper. Today, returning home with a signed piece of paper is a symbol of progress, but nothing more. The Chinese may be signing a contract to humour their guests. To them, a completed contract may merely be the proof that both sides have grown close enough to develop a trusting relationship. Further concessions may then be requested - a difficult prospect for the Westerner who has shaved his margin down to the bone.

Chinese Hotel Furniture Manufacturers

To take advantage of cost effective World Class Chinese manufacturing it is important to have "Western managed" quality control systems and procedures in place. Ensure that products conform to western standards including fire.


Chipboard will typically be mainly composed of recycled wood fibre, such as old pallets which have come to the end of their first useful life

Chrome Fittings in Bathroom Typical Standard Inda

INDA products use materials that conform to UNI and AISI quality standards and are quality tested according to UNI and ISO acceptance inspection procedure. Products are designed and tested to UNI, ISO, CEI and ASTM standards regarding mechanical strength, surface coating and electrical systems. In particular, products with electrical parts are designed and built to CEI 34-21 and 34-23 standards. Suitability according to European standard EN 60598-1-2 is guaranteed by the quality marks IMQ, NF and VDE. These products are all provided with the CE conformity mark. Mirror silvering is tested according to the DIN 1238 standards. INDA quality standards prescribe a number of tests designed to guarantee constant product quality, such as: - mechanical strength; - absence of residual stress in materials; - resistance to corrosion in saline atmospheres; - resistance to chemical agents; - constant paint colours; - constant thicknesses and adhesion of finishes. The coatings, both galvanic and painting, have been fully tested and certified by TUV Product Service. PROCESS QUALITY INDA manufacturing standards are under constant supervision to ensure that products conform to their quality specifications. The company's quality control is part of the quality system and is based on the following functions - CQA materials testing and acceptance - CQP process control - CQF finished product testing In 1990, in response to the EU Council safety directive 89/391/EEC, INDA set up a risk protection and prevention service. INDA's respect for the environment is in line with law 319 (1976) regarding pollution of water and with Presidential Order 203 (1988) on emissions into the atmosphere. Furthermore, INDA does not use any process that produces gases harmful to the ozone layer.

Classroom Style

Seating arrangement in which rows are facing the presenter and each person has a table for writing.


Products purchased should be able to withstand the ambient climatic conditions they will undergo during transportation to site and storage on site without affecting their integrity.

Codes EU USA

Products should conform to the strictest EU, USA Standards eg ISO, EN, ANSI, ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials),NBN, NF -applicable to International Hotels

Codes Local

Most countries will have regulations regarding the safety of items and materials. These concentrate on the fire and electrical characteristics although other factors may also be covered. Unfortunately there has been little progress towards standardisation of these tests and even where national tests are standardised local interpretation of regulations can differ between cities. It is important that this problem is addressed in the bidding progress and the vendors advised that supplying the relevant local certification is a part of their responsibilities and that payment will not be made until it is supplied. Local knowledge must be sought.

Codes Local Various

Products should normally comply with the following standards(including fire saftey, electrical, hygiene,performance) : -Hotel operator's standards
-The strictest EU, USA Standards eg ISO, EN, ANSI, ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials),NBN, NF -applicable to International Hotels -Performance standards for International Hotel Standards eg Hilton International -Local national standards eg BS, DIN, Coffee machine ITALIAN ESPRESSO NATIONAL INSTITUTE (I.N.E.I ) (certificate of product conformity UL, cUL, ETL Sanitation e NSF = United States Tüv e CB = Europe and extra European Countries GOST = Russia UDT (boiler certification) = Poland NSF Certification VDE - Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker Testing & Certification Inst. (German Electrical Standard)


Staff member who handles luggage, mail and makes reservations and arrangements on other matters for guests or visitors.

Condam regulations

Construction Design and Management Regulations (HEAS)

Conformity with Local Regulations

Suppliers are responsible for ensuring that their products conform to relevant local regulations and providing the relevant documentation. This documentation forms a part of the order and payment will not be made until it is received


There are normally a number of consultants involved in a hotel project these include :Architect; Interior design; Acoustics; M&E; QS; Structure; Soil test Lighting; Kitchen; Elevator; TA /Purchasing; Project Management; Foundations Specialist; ID


Hotel products which are consumed during their use eg. food, drink or paper products.

Convention Center

Facility designed to accommodate multiple groups or extremely large groups; exhibit halls, meeting rooms, ballrooms or banquet space; no sleeping rooms.

Definition of Scope(FF&E)

A document which lists in detail what is and what is not FF&E

Delivery schedule

A timetable detailing when items should be delivered


A penalty raised by ports and shipping lines when freight is not collected

Direct Marketing Association DMA

DMA Website


A platform on wheels for moving heavy objects


Make sure doors swing open easily without squeaking or rubbing and that long doors are attached with study hinges.


Make sure drawers are dovetailed and jointed securely, have glides and stops, glide easily when, have dust panels and are smooth and snag free inside.

  1. English Dovetail When drawer storage is an issue, English dovetail construction provides the most storage capacity. 2 French dovetails make good drawers. However, they are usually smaller, provide less storage capacity and tend to be in lower-priced products.
Electricity Saving
  1. Turn lights off when you don't need them.
  2. Use dimmers to save energy.
  3. Use photoelectric cells or timers to turn outdoor lighting on and off automatically.
  4. Use the more efficient reflector bulbs, especially for task and accent lighting. (Example: a 50W "R" bulb can put as much light on an object as a 100W "A" bulb.)
  5. Use energy-saving fluorescents wherever possible. They give more lumens-per-watt (more light from the electricity consumed) than incandescents. New compact fluorescents produce light that is similar in color to that of incandescents, making them an excellent choice for residential use. They are now available in styles that can accommodate a wide variety of decorative and functional fixtures.
Energy and Environmental Performance Indicators (EPI)

How to use Energy and Environmental Performance Indicators (EPI) that are developed in this model?

The first and foremost thing is the management commitment to implement EPI. The information generated by EPI will assist the hotel to:

* determine any necessary actions to achieve its energy and environmental performance criteria; * identify significant environmental aspects; * identify opportunities for better management of its environmental aspects (e.g. prevention of pollution); * identify trends in its environmental performance; * increase the organization's efficiency and effectiveness;

How EPI are developed?

EPI's are developed on five means, namely

* Direct measures or calculations: basic data or information, such as kg of linen washed per day, etc. * Relative measures or calculations: data or information compared to or in relation to another parameter (e.g. production level, time, location) such as kg of chemicals used per kg of linen washed per day. * Indexed: describing data or information converted to units or to a form which relates the information to a chosen standard or baseline, such as consumption of energy in the current year expressed as a percentage of those energy in a baseline year. * Aggregated: describing data or information of the same type, but from different sources, collected and expressed as a combined value, such as tonnes of CO2 emitted from total energy consumption in a given year, determined by summing emissions from multiple facilities producing that product. * Weighted: describing data or information modified by applying a factor related to its significance. Such as application of various conversion factors to different type of energy to convert in to the same energy unit.

Ethiopian Standards

Ethiopia Standards Quality and Standards Authority of Ethiopia Ess Standards

The Quality and Standards Authority of Ethiopia (QSAE) was first established as the Ethiopian Standards Institute (ESI), to promote and expand standardization and quality control activities in the national economy. ESI was later transformed into the Ethiopian Authority for Standardization (EAS), mandated for promoting standardization, quality control, quality assurance and certification and metrology, as a sole government organ at the national level. In February 1998, however, the authority was newly established as the Quality and Standards Authority of Ethiopia (QSAE). QSAE has the following objectives:

to promote and assist the establishment of appropriate quality management practices as an integral and yet distinct management function in the social and economic sectors; to assist in the improvement of the quality of products and processes through the promotion and application of Ethiopian standards; to promote and coordinate standardization at all levels in the country; to establish a sound national metrology system as a basic structure for economic development; to strengthen, promote and enhance the reliability of testing laboratories n

European Norm (EN)

CEN, the European Committee for Standardization or Comité Européen de Normalisation, is a private non-profit organisation whose mission is to foster the European economy in global trading, the welfare of European citizens and the environment by providing an efficient infrastructure to interested parties for the development, maintenance and distribution of coherent sets of standards and specifications.

CEN was founded in 1961. Its thirty national members work together to develop European Standards (ENs) in various sectors to build a European internal market for goods and services and to position Europe in the global economy. Some of these standards are voluntary, whereas other standards such as harmonized standards have been made effectively mandatory under EU law.

More than 60.000 technical experts as well as business federations, consumer and other societal interest organisations are involved in the CEN network that reaches over 460 million people. CEN is the officially recognized standardisation representative for sectors other than electrotechnical (CENELEC) and telecommunications (ETSI).

The standardisation bodies of the thirty national members represent the twenty seven member states of the European Union, three countries of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and countries who are likely to join the EU or EFTA in the future. CEN is contributing to the objectives of the European Union and European Economic Area with technical standards (EN standards) which promote free trade, the safety of workers and consumers, interoperability of networks, environmental protection, exploitation of research and development programmes, and public procurement. An example of mandatory standards are those for materials and products used in construction and listed under the Construction Products Directive. The CE mark is a declaration by the manufacturer that a product complies with the respective EU directive and hence the harmonized standard(s) referenced by the directive(s).

CEN (together with CENELEC) owns the Keymark, a voluntary quality mark for products and services. A product bearing the Keymark demonstrates conformity to European Standards.

The current CEN Members are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom.

Affiliates: Albania, Croatia, FYROM, Turkey.

Partner standardisation bodies: Australia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Egypt, Republic of Moldova, Russian Federation, Serbia, Tunisia, Ukrain


Finish could be divided into four areas; color, look, feel, and protection. Less expensive finishes are the same color as more expensive finishes, but they do not have the same look or feel. Middle to upper priced furniture has the same look as high-end furniture, but not the same feel. Protection is the amount of lacquer or clear-coats that are on the products As you go higher in price points, you find more protection through more coats or “build” of material. These differences create a lot of the cost difference in products that look very similar.

Color is what you notice about finishes when you view furniture from twenty to thirty feet away. That’s why many pieces of furniture look like they are the same color if you are standing back and looking at displays in a large store. But as you get closer, ten to fifteen feet away, there are some distinctive differences. These differences on the more expensive furniture are subtle hues that blend together to create a softer, more sophisticated look. And when you get close enough to touch the furniture that may look the same from a distance, the higher priced furniture will have a softer, silkier feel. The most expensive furniture would also have more protection; the least expensive products have very little protection.

FIRA Website

Who we are

The Furniture Industry Research Association (FIRA) is a non-government funded organisation, a company limited by guarantee and a not-for-profit membership-based organisation.

FIRA has been in existence for over half a century. Its name is synonymous with independence, integrity and authority. Its position in the industry is unique with a diverse membership encompassing companies and individuals from around the world and across the entire furniture supply chain, from materials suppliers, components and furniture manufacturers, to specifiers, retailers and end users.

FIRA has driven the need for higher standards through testing, research and innovation for the furniture supply chain. New and better materials, improved processes and appropriate standards have been developed to enhance the quality of furniture and to assist suppliers, manufacturers and retailers to become more competitive.

FIRA is recognised internationally as being at the leading edge, with world-class technology and unparalleled industry knowledge Our aims

* support our members’ businesses * add value to their products and processes * help improve their bottom line performance

What we do

We seek to achieve this aim through active and on-going programmes of information and research. Information is provided through this website, an extensive collection of printed materials and our training courses.

Research is largely driven by the desire to update and improve our information so that it continues to meet our members' and the industry’s needs in the future. FIRA International Limited

FIRA International is an independent consultancy company providing services to the furniture industry supply chain. FIRA International provides these services itself and through it’s other companies, ukfirst and Qualitas. It is a member of the TTL Chiltern Group of companies and is FIRA’s appointed provider for its Research and Information Programmes and for the administration of its membership services. FIRA International also provides a wide range of commercial and training services. Details of all of these services are accessible from the home page of this web site

Fire Resistant

Fire resistant refers to a fabric or fiber that has been treated to discourage the spreading of flames and delays heat penetration through a substrate.

Fire Retardant

A fabric that retards the spreading of flames. A flame retardant fabric can be made by using fibers that are themselves flame retardant (inherently flame retardant), or by using special finishes on fabrics. A fire retardant material slows burning across the surface of a combustible substrate.

Fire Retardant Fabric

A fabric that retards the spreading of flames. A flame retardant fabric can be made by using fibers that are themselves flame retardant (inherently flame retardant), or by using special finishes on fabrics. A fire retardant material slows burning across the surface of a combustible substrate.


Fireproof means that a fabric literally will not burn. To be labeled fireproof, the Federal Trade Commission requires that a fabric must be 100% fireproof. If the fiber or fabric has been treated to prevent flames from spreading, it must be labeled as fire resistant.

Fit for Purpose and Merchantable

Part of Sale of Goods Act

Flame Retardancy

United Kingdom * Furnishing & Drape Fabrics BS 5867 parts 1 & 2, type A,B & C

  • Upholstery Fabrics Ignition sources 0 (cigarette) and 1 (match) when tested in accordance with BS 5852 part 1 and can pass ignition source 5 (crib) over suitable CMHR foam in accordance with BS 5852. Predictively tested to BS 7176 1991, medium hazard areas. BS EN 1021 : 1 and BS EN 1021 : 2

    Bedspreads & Coverlets All quilted bedspreads and coverlets with flame retardant filler and flame retardant lining comply to BS 7175: 1989 section three, ignition source 0,1 and 5.

International France Standards for M1/M2 Germany DIN 4102 B1 low flammability, B2 normal flammability Italy CSE RF 1/75/A and CSE RF 3/77 Class 1

Complies with most other European and International standards. Details available on request.

Maritime IMO Resolution A471 (X11), IMO A563 (14) and IMO A652 (16) as embodied in IMO-844E.

All fabrics are approved to carry the ship's wheelmark


Flameproof is a synonym for fireproof.

Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)

Website The Forest Stewardship Council enables you to buy forest products of all kinds with confidence that you are not contributing to global forest destruction. FSC certified forests are managed to ensure long term timber supplies while protecting the environment and the lives of forest-dependent peoples. FSC certification can also cover non-timber forest products such as latex and foods. A system of Chain of Custody certification traces forest products through the supply chain to the end-consumer. Whenever you buy timber or timber products always look for the FSC logo. Everyone uses forest products in their business or daily life, and FSC offers solutions for:

* Forest and woodland owners and managers * Timber processors * Manufacturers of timber products * Manufacturers of non-timber forest products * Paper producers, printers and publishers * Importers * Retailers * End users * Architects, specifiers and self-builders * Consumers

Much more information can be found on this site. Using the FSC Label

The name Forest Stewardship Council, the acronym FSC and the FSC Logo are all registered trademarks which may not be used without prior authorization. Please contact us first if you are considering using our trademarks in any way. Only certified products may carry the FSC label, but it is available for non-product related promotional, educational and press use under certain circumstances.

Please note, this is the website of the FSC UK Working Group. For information about FSC around the world, go to the FSC International website which includes contact details for all FSC National Initiatives.

French Fire codes

M0, signifie "incombustible" Incombustable M1, signifie "non inflammable" Non inflammable M2, signifie "difficilement inflammable" Low inflammable M3, signifie "moyennement inflammable" Medium inflammable M4, signifie "facilement inflammable" Easily Inflammable

French Fire Codes for Exhibition Stand


Le présent document constitue le cahier des charges de la manifestation prévu à l'article T5 & 3 de l'Arrêté du 18 novembre 1987.

REGLEMENTATIONS Les obligations rappelées dans le présent document sont celles prévues par l'Arrêté Ministériel du 18 novembre 1987. Les articles de cet Arrêté sont repérés par la lettre T suivie d'un numéro d'ordre.

Les stands de dégustation ou de restauration doivent respecter les nouvelles mesures édictées par la Commission Départementale de Sécurité :

l’utilisation de gaz est, désormais, interdite à l’intérieur des Halls.
un extincteur CO2 et une couverture anti-feu sont obligatoires à l’intérieur de chaque
le coffret électrique doit, obligatoirement, être situé à l’extérieur de la cuisine.
les installations électriques doivent comporter des protections divisionnaires réglementaires en aval du coffret de livraison électrique pour l’alimentation des installations de cuisine.
Le non respect de ces règles de sécurité pourra entraîner la fermeture du stand au seul préjudice de l’exposant qui reste responsable de ses installations.

obligations des exposants et locataires de stand
Le respect des dispositions du présent document par les exposants et locataires de stand est imposé par l'article T8.
Le contrôle exercé par l'Administration est effectué par le biais de la Commission Départementale de la Sécurité qui est en possession du présent document. Avant l'ouverture au public, la Commission de Sécurité effectue une visite de réception ; lors de cette visite, les travaux d'aménagement doivent être terminés et l'exposant ou son mandataire qualifié doit être présent et doit pouvoir communiquer tout renseignement concernant les installations et les matériaux.
Un mois avant l'ouverture au public, une déclaration auprès du Comité des Expositions doit être faite par les exposants ou locataires de stand utilisant des machines ou appareils en fonctionnement, des moteurs thermiques ou à combustion, du gaz, des gaz dangereux, des sources radio-actives, des rayons X et des lasers (utiliser l’imprimé joint à cet effet).
La responsabilité des exposants et des locataires prend fin lorsque le stand a été entièrement démonté.

Dans le texte qui suit : M0, signifie "incombustible"
M1, signifie "non inflammable"
M2, signifie "difficilement inflammable"
M3, signifie "moyennement inflammable"
M4, signifie "facilement inflammable"

Elles doivent être en matériaux M0, M1, M2. Les ossatures en bois de 24 mm et plus sont toutefois admises sans protection particulière (alors que les ossatures en bois de moins de 24 mm doivent être ignifugées).

Elles doivent être en matériaux M0, M1, M2. Les cloisons en bois ne répondant pas à ces conditions doivent être ignifugées (deux faces ou à cœur).

Revêtements des cloisons
Ils doivent être M0, M1, M2 :

sont interdits dans tous les cas, en revêtement de cloisons : . les moquettes, qu’elles soient flottantes, agrafées ou collées,
. les plaques, panneaux ou feuilles de matière plastique expansée qui ne seraient pas au moins difficilement inflammables (M2), . les agglomérés cellulosiques mous.

Revêtements de sol
Tous les revêtements de sol doivent être classés MO, M1, M2 ou M3.

En règle générale les plafonds sont interdits et rien ne doit s’opposer au déversement de l’eau des sprinklers. Toutefois en assouplissement à cette règle, sont tolérés en couverture de stands :

des éléments alvéolés genre “Claustras” en matériaux M0, M1 ou M2 (50 % de vide minimum), des éléments alternés en matériaux M0, M1 ou M2 disposés en “damier” de manière à constituer un plafond largement ajouré (50 %),
des bandes verticales en matériaux minces, M0, M1 ou M2 espacées d’au moins 20 cm,
des bandes horizontales en matériaux M0, M1 ou M2 à condition que leur largeur ne soit pas supérieure à 1 mètre et qu’elles soient séparées par un espace libre au moins égal à la largeur des bandes,
des plaques perforées en matériaux M0 ou M1 à condition que les ouvertures correspondent à 50 % de la surface des plaques,
des tissus à larges mailles, n’offrant qu’une résistance limitée au passage de l’eau. Ces tissus doivent être au moins M0, M1 ou M2.

Stands couverts Lorsque les besoins d’une présentation spécifique le justifient, des stands couverts par un plafond ou un vélum plein peuvent être autorisés sur demande préalable adressée à l’organisateur de la manifestation (deux stands ainsi couverts doivent être distants de 4 mètres, et le total couvert ne doit pas dépasser 10 % de la surface du hall considéré). Lorsque la surface couverte d’un stand est comprise entre 20 et 50 m2, l’exposant doit prévoir un extincteur de 6 kg à eau pulvérisée. Lorsque la surface couverte est supérieure à 50 m2 l’exposant doit prévoir l’installation d’un éclairage de sécurité par blocs autonomes normalisés et s’assurer (pendant les heures d’ouverture au public) le concours d’un agent de sécurité-incendie disposant d’extincteurs appropriés.
En aucun cas la surface couverte ne peut dépasser 300 m2.

installations Electriques
Article T 36 - Installations particulières des stands

§1 - Les installations particulières des stands doivent être réalisées par des personnes particulièrement averties des risques spécifiques de la manifestation, possédant les connaissances leur permettant de concevoir et de faire exécuter les travaux en conformité avec le présent règlement.
§2 - Le coffret de livraison visé à l'article T35 (§3) doit être inaccessible au public, tout en restant facilement accessible au personnel du stand. §3 - Les canalisations peuvent être fixées aux aménagements provisoires des stands. Il s'agit de câbles souples ; ils doivent être prévus pour une tension minimale au moins égale à 500 volts.
Les socles de prises de courant doivent être raccordés à des circuits protégés par des dispositifs de protection contre les surintensités de courant nominal au plus égal à 16 A. Tout appareil nécessitant une puissance supérieure doit être alimenté par un circuit
spécialement adapté.
En dérogation aux dispositions de l'article EL.6 (§5), l'usage d'un adaptateur multiple ou d'un boîtier multiple alimenté à partir d'un socle fixe est autorisé.
§4 - Toutes les canalisations doivent comporter un conducteur de protection relié à la borne prévue à l'article T35 (§5). Les appareils de la classe 0 doivent être protégés par les dispositifs à courant différentiel nominaux au plus égal à 30 mA.
Les appareils de la classe 1 doivent être reliés au conducteur de protection de la canalisation les alimentant. L'utilisation de prises de terre individuelles de protection est interdite. §5 - Les lampes à décharge alimentées en haute tension doivent être installées conformément aux règles de la norme NF C 15-150. Si elles sont enfermées dans les enveloppes isolantes, ces enveloppes doivent être constituées de matériaux de catégorie M3.
L'interrupteur prévu à l'article 5 de la NF C 15-150 peut être confondu avec l'appareil de commande visé à l'article T35 (§) du stand correspondant.

lutte contre l'incendie L'implantation et l'aménagement des stands ne doivent pas compromettre l'accessibilité aux RIA, aux extincteurs et aux commandes de désenfumage.
Les stands possédant un plafond, un faux-plafond ou un vélum et les stands présentant un niveau de surélévation doivent disposer d'extincteurs portatifs dès lors que leur surface est supérieure à 50 m2. L'utilisation de ces extincteurs doit être assurée par une personne désignée à cet effet.

produits interdits
Les produits suivants sont interdits sur les stands :

échantillons ou produits contenant un gaz inflammable,
ballons gonflés avec gaz inflammable ou toxique,
articles en celluloïd,
artifices pyrotechniques et explosifs,
oxyde d'éthyle, sulfure de carbone, éther sulfurique et acétone,
acétylène, oxygène et hydrogène (sauf dérogation administrative).

liquides inflammables
Sur chaque stand, les liquides inflammables sont limités aux quantités suivantes :

10 litres de liquides inflammables de 2e catégorie (fioul, gasoil, alcool de titre supérieur à 40°)
5 litres de liquides inflammables de 1ère catégorie (benzène, toluène, hexane, butanol, xylène, essence de térébenthine). Les liquides particulièrement inflammables (oxyde d'éthylène, sulfure de carbone, éther) sont interdits.

dispositions spéciales
A réception de la déclaration transmise par les exposants utilisant des machines et appareils en fonctionnement, ou des moteurs thermiques et à combustion, ou des véhicules automobiles, ou des substances radio-actives et des rayons X, ou des lasers, l'organisateur transmettra à l'intéressé une fiche récapitulant les mesures de sécurité particulières à prendre sur le stand.

Furniture Industry Sustainability Programme (FISP)

Independent proof of an organisation’s commitment to sustainable development l easing the fears of increasingly discerning buyers. Government departments, Local Authorities, retailers, schools, hospitals and large corporate companies are becoming aware of FISP and the added value that it can bring to them, with most demanding that their suppliers are members.

FISP membership brings added benefits:

* benchmarking * good practice guide * annual industry performance reports

Furnture, Fixtures and Equipment(FF&E)

FF&E is short for Furniture, Fixtures and Equipment. The items normally have some form of underlying value. Because there is considerable opportunity for costly confusion we have developed a Definition of Scope document which lists in detail what is and what is not FF&E. FF&E includes all fixed kitchen and laundry equipment including cold rooms and kitchen hoods, health club equipment, computers with their associated equipment and software, all loose furniture, decorative lighting, carpets, curtains and bed covers. It does NOT include consumable supplies such as food, drink or paper products, wall coverings, hard floor finishes, wall tiling, plumbing fixtures such as faucets, washbasins, baths or wcs, built-in millwork such as the reception desk, PABX systems and handsets, or computer cabling.


Gastronorm sizes are standard sizes of container used in the catering industry specified in the EN 631 standards:

* GN1/9 : 108 x 176 mm * GN1/6 : 175 x 162 mm * GN1/4 : 265 x 163 mm * GN1/3 : 325 x 175 mm * GN1/2 : 325 x 265 mm * GN2/3 : 354 x 325 mm * GN1/1 : 530 x 325 mm * GN2/1 : 650 x 530 mm

Trays and stackable plastic storage containers are often made in these sizes



Glassware for hotel use

Specification Sheet- Glassware Characteristics : - machine blown products - lead free crystal - designed for daily professional use - dishwasher safe

Good Practice

Good practices are simply the best way to perform a business process. They are the means by which leading organisations have achieved top performance, and they serve as goals for other organisations striving for excellence.

Good practices are not the definitive answer to a business problem. Instead, they are a source of creative insight for business improvement. Adapting good practices to your specific needs can dramatically affect performance -- leading to breakthroughs that save environment, time, improve quality, lower costs, and increase revenue.

Guanxi, pronounced gwan shee

The logical development of close relationships is the Chinese concept of guanxi, pronounced gwan shee. According to business analyst Tim Ambler of the London Business School, the kernel of guanxi is doing business through value-laden relationships. In a highly centralised, bureaucratic state, the use of personal contacts was the only way to get things done. Guanxi is the counterpart of a commercial legal system. Where the latter is relatively weak, as in China, the need to rely on guanxi will be strong. As long as the relationship is more valuable than the transaction, it is logical to honour it. The idea of a friendship leading to business is attractive. But Easterners who are familiar with guanxi are more cautious than Western converts. The obligations of guanxi are very real. In the wrong place, at an inappropriate time, with unsuitable people, the obligations can become a trap it is hard to escape.

Guestroom Casegood Standards

Typical Standards -Casegoods - ISO 9001 quality accredited company -All products to be manufactured as per the standards/ specifications called for in the enquiry documents provided by the respective Clients. However, final products and the raw-materials used generally to comply with the following standards:- (a) Strength and Stability of products comply with BS 4875 General Contract Use. (b) Lacquers and other finishing materials comply with BS6250 (c) Upholstery Foams and filling materials comply with Fire Rating standards of California Furnishing Standards equivalent to BS 7176, BS EN 1021 and BS5852. (d) Quality of products is ensured as perr Quality Assurance Procedure which is maintained in line with ISO 9001 quality standards. Manufacture of the products based on the designs/ specifications/ standards provided by the Client. However, the supplier should ensures that the construction of the products is sturdy and is suitable for long term use in contract environment.
Please note the following salient characteristics of products ensuring safety:- (a) Fire resistant Lacquer (b) Fire resistant Upholstery Foam and Filling materials (c) Fire resistant Upholstery Fabrics (d) Fire resistant Doors and Joinery (e) Sturdy Construction to ensure strength and stability. quality certified by ISO-9001 for Design, Manufacture, Supply and Installation of quality Furniture, Furnishings, Upholstery and Joinery. - Quality Management & Control as per ISO 9001 quality standards to ensure quality products and services. - All products should undergo continuous quality inspections during and after the manufacturing process. - Finest raw-materials from reliable sources to be used in the construction of all products. All timbers are sourced from reputed Suppliers having renewable supply source. - All products to be guaranteed against faulty workmanship and or usage of defective materials for a period of 5 years from date of manufacturing. - Products are engineered through AUTOCAD programs for optimum performance, robust and sturdy construction. - Export Quality packaging to ensure maximum care and safety to the products.

Guestroom Casegoods

Bedroom furniture with solid wood, wood veneer or laminate surfaces, suitably coated to give washable, durable, stain and heat resistant surfaces. Any veneer or laminate surfaces or solid edges should be suitably glued so that they withstand knocks and scrapes without de-laminating. Items of furniture in rooms should match with each other and with the room interior design

Guestroom Desks

Ideally TVs should be visible from the desk.If hairdryer required for desk drawer then drawer must be deep enough and a local power source will be required Task lighting is needed with high level access to a modem point and a power point for P/Cs. An additional power point and telephone point may be needed for fax, these may not be high level.

Guestroom Fabrics Standards

Fabrics to conform to local fire and Operator's standards . Water and soil resistant Fabricator to confirm quantities of fabrics required All fabrics must be fireproof in accordance with local codes in addition the fabric must have passed the appropriate fire standards for use in a major hotel and be easily maintained We have found that in practice fabrics should be - 1. Natural fibers, cotton or wool, protected as necessary with the Pyrovatex fire proofing treatment. Alternative treatments are not acceptable as we have found that they are either not permanent or cause short or long term discolouration of fabric 2, Trevira CS, this does not normally require any additional treatment to achieve the necessary standard, however it is not approved for use as upholstery as it has no "barrier properties" & will not protect upholstery foams from heat.
Bedspreads and curtains should achieve fire resistance to UK standard BS 5867 Part 2 or local equivalent. Ideally Trevira material should be used as this is inherently fire resistant. If cotton used, it should have a permanent treatment such as Pyrovatex to make it fire retardant. Upholstery fabrics should achieve fire resistance to UK Standard BS 5867 Part B Crib 5 or local equivalent. They should achieve a minimum rub test of 40,000 rubs (Martindale Rub Test). Fire code certificates plus cleaning instructions for all fabrics should be given to the Operator prior to commissioning. Curtain tracks will normally be SilentGliss or equivalent, standard is recessed or behind a pelmet. Both voiles and blackout curtains should be fitted. All curtains should be provided with acrylic pull rods.

Guestroom Furniture

In general bedroom furniture with solid wood, wood veneer or laminate surfaces should be suitably coated to give washable, durable, stain and heat resistant surfaces. Any veneer or laminate surfaces or solid edges should be suitably glued so that they withstand knocks and scrapes without de-laminating. Items of furniture in rooms should match with each other and with the room interior design. Drawers should have rust resistant metal ball bearing type runners and not plastic glides. Cupboard and wardrobe doors should have 180 degree hinges, which are robust type and not allow the doors to drop. All lamps should have low energy type bulbsI

Guestroom sofa bed
  1. Solid hardwood frames. 2. Twofold slatted mechanisms used extensively world wide.3. Crib 5 specification throughout. This is mostly covering the upholstery fabric Sofa bed mattress which complies to the Crib 5 test accreditation.4. Frames are guaranteed for 10 years. 5. Seat cushions are guaranteed for 5 years against collapse.6. Bed mechanisms are guaranteed for 3 year.

Kitchen Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point.

Hazard preventative system

Hard currency -

A currency whose value is expected to remain stable or increase in terms of other currencies. eg the Euro or USdollar

Head Table

Table reserved for speakers and VIPs at front of the room, usually facing the audience

Heated Mirror Typical Standard

Europe EN60 335-2-30:1997 Tested and approved by BEAB International IEC 335.2.30:1996 Tested and approved by BEAB USA E151390 Tested and approved by UL Canada E151390 Tested and approved by UL Australia CS697ON Tested and approved by Dept of Energy

Interior Designer(ID)

Will produce a detailed set of drawings and specifications that are the basis of the orders and contracts of the furniture, furnishings and fixtures GA Design

International Organisation for Standardisation

ISO is a network of the national standards institutes of 157 countries, on the basis of one member per country, with a Central Secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland, that coordinates the system.

ISO is a non-governmental organization: its members are not, as is the case in the United Nations system, delegations of national governments. Nevertheless, ISO occupies a special position between the public and private sectors. This is because, on the one hand, many of its member institutes are part of the governmental structure of their countries, or are mandated by their government. On the other hand, other members have their roots uniquely in the private sector, having been set up by national partnerships of industry associations.

Therefore, ISO is able to act as a bridging organization in which a consensus can be reached on solutions that meet both the requirements of business and the broader needs of society, such as the needs of stakeholder groups like consumers and users.

ISO 22000-ISO 9001 HACCP

ISO22000is a relatively new standard and is based around ISO9001but has been generated specifically for the food industry. The standard is based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) where potential hazards are identified and a detailed plan established to ensure elimination or effective control over hazards such as physical, chemical or microbiological contamination.

ISO 9000 Standards

This is a set of quality standards developed in 1987 by the International Organization for Standardization. The three major areas of certification are as follows: ISO 9001, which covers all the processes of a company from design and development to procurement, production, testing, installation and service. ISO 9002, which covers everything except design and development ISO 90003, which covers only inspection and testing.

ISO 9001

A guarantee of ongoing reliability of the overall company organisation.. 850:850All processes of the company operations, from order acceptance right through to delivery, are constantly kept under control


Gives organizations guidance on implementing social responsibility initiatives.

Kitchen Utensils

Aside from electric equipment, pots and pans will be your biggest investment in the kitchen. For best results, you'll want pots and pans that are able to conduct heat efficiently. Copper and aluminum (anodized or nonanodized) conduct heat the best. You'll find the higher-end brands, such as All Clad, feature these materials. If these seem a little too pricey, good stainless steel pans with aluminum and copper sandwiched at the bottom can serve your needs just fine. When it comes to choosing cutlery, you want knives that feel good in hand--they should have a comfortable grip with good weight and balance. You really only need three knives in the kitchen for cooking: a chef's knife, a paring knife, and a serrated knife (i.e., a bread knife). The chef's knife handles all your general chopping and slicing. The paring knife is used for peeling small vegetables and fruit as well as other delicate tasks. A serrated knife is necessary for slicing soft items such as tomatoes or bread. The best knives are made of high-carbon stainless steel, as it holds a very sharp edge and resists stains, rust, and breakage. Some cooks swear by wood, and some swear by plastic cutting boards. One of the nice advantages to plastic cutting boards is that different colors can represent boards for meat, chicken, garlic and onions, and vegetables. That way there's less worry about contamination and transferred food odors.

Laminate -Metallic Laminate

A laminate where the face of the material consists of a sheet of thin, treated metal, as in the Metallics Range. This metal face can be used alone on the surface or in conjunction with other materials, such as wood veneers, to provide studded or similar effects.

Laminate -Veneer Laminate

A laminate where the face of the material is either a real wood veneer or a reconstituted wood veneer formed to provide realistic or abstract designs, as in the Veneers Range.

Laminate- Compact Laminate

(Also referred to as Solid Grade laminate.) Compact Grade laminate has a solid core built up from multiple layers of resin-impregnated high quality kraft papers to thicknesses between 2mm and 20mm. Each side of the laminate sheet has the same design and surface finish; so Compact Grade laminates are perfectly balanced. The core material acts as a substrate, so that sheets of 6mm thickness and above do not require bonding. Structurally stable and damage resistant, this grade of laminate is particularly suitable for applications where material strength is important.

Laminate- Formica

Formica ColorCore® Laminate Formica ColorCore is a high-performance Formica laminate product in which the colour is apparent through the depth and edge of the sheet. Available in standard grade, it is particularly suitable for high wear horizontal surfaces or in areas where continuity of colour through edge detailing is important.

Laminate-High Pressure Laminate HPL

Commonly referred to simply as 'laminate'. The traditional high quality Formica laminate is constructed from layers of paper impregnated with thermosetting synthetic resins. These saturated papers are fused together under heat and pressure to produce a high performance decorative surfacing material available in a wide variety of colours and designs, with many performance properties.

Lavaliere Microphone

A small microphone that is clipped onto clothing to allow the speaker to move.

Letter of Credit

For importers looking for new suppliers, one of the primary considerations when deciding on payment terms is to ensure that the goods supplied are the goods ordered. With an Import Letter of Credit, importers request that their bank guarantee payment for the goods, provided that certain documentary conditions are met. A fast and secure method of guaranteeing payment to suppliers to expedite shipment from overseas, the Import Letter of Credit includes such features and benefits as:

  • Ensures that buyer only be required to pay if conditions of credit are met
  • Improved cash flow management
  • Minimized financial risks
  • Eliminates extensive credit investigations by the seller of the importer
Lighting -Chandeliors

Chandeliers can add sparkle and style to restaurants and ballroom while giving you the general lighting you need for dining and entertaining. They are also used in foyers, or over a a grand piano. Some are designed with downlights to provide task lighting or to accent table settings. Chandeliers are available in both incandescent and tungsten-halogen(see light sources). The addition of a dimmer control lets you alter the intensity of light to suit the mood and activity (see lighting controls).

Lighting -General

General Lighting provides an area with overall illumination. Also known as ambient lighting, general lighting radiates a comfortable level of brightness, enabling one to see and walk about safely.
It can be accomplished with chandeliers, ceiling or wall-mounted fixtures, recessed or track lights, and with lanterns outside your home. A basic form of lighting that replaces sunlight, general lighting is fundamental to a lighting plan.

Lighting Ceiling Fixtures

Ceiling Fixtures usually provide general lighting. They are practical in busy areas such as foyers, hallways, bedrooms, kitchens, baths, laundry rooms, playrooms, and dens. They are available with incandescent, fluorescent, and energy-efficient compact fluorescent bulbs (see light sources).

Lighting Chelsom

Typical Standards Lighting Chelsom Ltd Regulated by the Lighting Association who visit our factory on a regular basis to test our systems and test procedures. All our product is manufactured to British Standard EN 60598-1 and/or to whatever local standards are required, dependent upon where we are exporting the product. The standard tests are comprehensive and include electrical, construction and safety tests in all cases.International standards - we apply the same BS standards detailed above for all our product. Also the majority of our product is UL approved for export to America and various other countries. With regard to specificregulations, all our product is supplied to conform with the customers' specifications. Therefore, this will depend on the individual project. We submit control samples for all special product produced, irrespective ofwhere it is, and the characteristics of the product are always agreed with the customer. The same comment relates to the paragraph below.International Standardisation Organisation - our company has international certification for the export of product into Europe, including VDE and UL approval in addition to the BS standards controlled by the Lighting Association detailed above.

Lighting Foyer or hall

Hall/Foyer Fixtures can create a congenial atmosphere, while providing you with the general lighting you need to greet guests and assure safe passage into other areas of hotel. Use ceiling, chain-hung, or close-to-ceiling fixtures in hallways, stairways, and entranceways.

Lighting Pendants

Pendants can provide both task and general lighting. Equipped with shades or globes to avoid glare, they are suspended from the ceiling over tables, or counters, or other work areas. The use of a dimmer control gives you the flexibility to vary the light to suit the occasion (see lighting controls).

Lighting Portable Lamps

Portable Lamps can deliver general, task, and accent lighting, while giving you the flexibility to move the light whenever you want. Table lamps, floor lamps, and torchiers are available in a variety of styles to complement decor. Small specialty lamps, such as clip-on lights, uplight cans, adjustable task lights, mini-reflector spotlights, desk and piano lamps fill a variety of task and accent light needs. These lamps are available with incandescent, tungsten-halogen, and energy-efficient compact fluorescent bulbs.

Lighting Recessed

Recessed Lighting can provide general, task, or accent lighting inconspicuously. Installed in the ceiling with only the trim showing, recessed fixtures can be used anywhere in the home, including outdoors under eaves. They are ideal for low-ceiling areas, and with a special adapter they can also be used in cathedral ceilings. They are available as downlights, adjustable accent lights, and wall washers in both standard and low-voltage current and a choice of incandescent, tungsten-halogen, and energy-efficient compact fluorescents.

Lighting Standard Andy Thorton

A Thornton -Conforming with the Lighting Associations Regulations for the code of practice for the safety of luminaires scheme. -Compliance with the Electrical Equipment (Safety )Regulations 1994 Code of Practice requires: -Conformity with the constructional requirements of EN60598 -100% inspection and routine testing of each luminaire including: continuity/functional check(12v) Earth continuity 1500 V L-N 1500 LN-E -Maintenance of 100% test records with traceability from each luminaire -Calibrated test set -Written purchase orders requiring conformity with National/European standards -Annual surveillance -Annual type test verification of a sample from production

Lighting Track Lighting

Track Lighting can provide general, task, or accent lighting all at once in one flexible lighting system. You can move, swivel, rotate, and aim the individual fixtures in any direction along the track, giving you the versatility to change your lighting scheme when the need arises. You can also hang chandeliers and pendants from the track. Track fixtures are available in standard or low-voltage current, and a choice of incandescent, tungsten-halogen, and energy-efficient compact fluorescent light sources (see light sources).

Lighting Undercabinet

Undercabinet/ Undershelf Fixtures offer both task and accent lighting. Under kitchen cabinets they light a countertop. In a display cabinet they show off prized possessions. They're used in a workshop or anywhere you need lighting right at hand. They include slim, energy-efficient fluorescents, miniature track lighting, and strips of low-voltage mini-lights.

Lighting Wall Fixtures

Wall-Mounted Fixtures can furnish general, task, and accent lighting. Many are designed to match and supplement dining room chandeliers, or to provide hallway, bedroom, or living room lighting. Wall brackets are often used for task lighting at the bathroom mirror. They are available with a choice of incandescent, tungsten-halogen, and energy-efficient compact fluorescent bulbs.


Accent Lighting adds drama to a room by creating visual interest. As part of a decorating scheme, it is used to spotlight paintings, plants, sculpture, and other prized possessions, or to highlight the texture of a wall, drapery or outdoor landscaping. Accent lighting requires at least three times as much light on the focal point as the general lighting around it. This usually is provided by track, recessed, or wall-mounted fixtures.


Task lighting helps you perform specific tasks such as reading. It can be provided by recessed and track lighting, pendant lighting, and portable lamps. Task lighting should be free of distracting glare and shadows and should be bright enough to prevent eyestrain

Local Safety Codes

Most countries will have regulations regarding the safety of items and materials. These concentrate on the fire and electrical characteristics although other factors may also be covered. Unfortunately there has been little progress towards standardisation of these tests and even where national tests are standardised local interpretation of regulations can differ between cities. It is important that this problem is addressed in the bidding progress and the vendors advised that supplying the relevant local certification is a part of their responsibilities and that payment will not be made until it is supplied. Local knowledge must be sought.

Lockers STandards

Fire-resistant locker that meets safety standards... A good fire-resistant locker is a locker that restores safely all the documents and media, irrespective of fire severity. The only reliable, safe and well-known standards in Europe: - Standard VDMA 24 991-1 - Standard NF-EN 1047-1

Long Term Cost of Ownership

It is important to take into account not just the initial cost of an item but also its cost in the long term. A more expensive item may have lower maintenance or operating costs or a longer operational life. Maintenance costs and the length of any warranties should be negotiated at the same time as the tender price.

Main contract euipment

Equipment provided in the main building contract and which are is not FF&E or OS&E eg things like wall coverings, hard floor finishes, wall tiling, plumbing fixtures such as faucets, washbasins, baths or wcs, built-in millwork such as the reception desk, PABX systems and handsets, or computer cabling.


MDF interior medium density fibreboard

MDF v Particleboard

MDF uses a finer particle than particleboard. The result is a board that machines better ( more evenly) and has a nicer finish surface whereas particle board is used more in underlayment situations where the board will be hidden.

Melamine Faced Chipboard (MFC)

A chipboard substrate with a sheet of treated surface paper bonded to it during production. This surface paper is used to provide the colour and design apparent on the product. Less durable than high pressure laminate, it is particularly suitable for certain vertical applications.

Mini Bar Bartech Standard

Note:Minibar Minibar -Compressor(Hermetic) or peltier ** Manual Type 60 L Drink 600 PGP,Automatic defrost Upgradable to Bartech H41C automated system. Fitted with Eutectic plate and timer allowing compressor to be switched off at night

60L W450,H630,D480 (does not include non refrigerated for vending dry goods. This should be built in) Height above includes 20mm for feet that can be removed A minimum opening of 200cm2 must be allowed at the top and bottom of the bar for ventilation of the rear mounted chiller unit

Automatic Electrical power connections and cabling required . Installation co-ordinated with project manager. Co-ordinate with guestroom furniture. Recommended when labour costs and minibar sales are high and guest stay is short. This is a complete system of automatic minibars Includes minibar, complete electronic set for control and management software, installation and training Fitted with Eutectic plate and timer allowing compressor to be switched off at night Automatic Defrost Automatic invoice,computerised management 41 products,electro magnetic lock, computer controled auto defrost Refrigerated capacity63L H645 W450,D485
Top dry section H 220mm w450 d485 Total dimensions for fridge and dry section: h880 w450 d485 mm

Manual Automatic All units need a minimum ventilation cross section of 200cm2 after deductions for grills if any. In at the bottom, pass the back of the unit and out to free space at the top.

We don’t link the minibar door to the outer door of the case good furniture it’s fitted in. The minibar door should preferably be a similar finish to the case goods.

Normally mini-bars are automatic, the exception being resort properties, where guests stay longer and fridges are sometimes preferred. A typical mini-bar housing might have a mirror with two shelves over for glasses, plus a shelf for the kettle, etc, and a halogen spotlight overhead. Indel, Mr Berardi, Tel: +39 541 848711, Fax: +39 541 848000 (Italy) Bartech, Marc Cohen, Tel: +33 1 41 44 1010, Fax: +33 1 41 44 1011 (France)

The purchase of absorption minibars is no longer approved . In Room Bar Insulated Cabinets The In-Room bar must be constructed of a material that is easy to keep clean and insulated with a suitable material blown with an environmentally friendly agent.
The efficiency of insulation needs to match the refrigeration capacity of the chiller unit and be able to achieve a suitable temperature.
The insulation must be sufficient to achieve a value equal to or better than 0.9 watts/øC.
This means that a 10 watt heater placed inside the cabinet should be able to produce a temperature difference of 11øC above ambient when the bar is new Refrigeration unit types All units whether they are of Compressor or Peltier design must: 1 Fully comply with the codes and regulations of the countries where they will be used. 2 Be permanently marked with the date, place and company of manufacture. Compressor The compressor unit must be of the hermetic type and use a non ozone depleting refrigerant such as HFC - R134a. A eutectic plate must be fitted to the evaporator in order to enable the In-Room bar to remain at the required temperature for a period of twelve (12) hours (non use) without the compressor cutting in.
The timing of this &quiet8 period must be easily adjustable. The compressor must be of a design where the starting and operating noise is no higher than 43 dB (A) with a background noise of 34 dB(A) measure at 1M from the front of the unit.
The compressor must be installed in such a way that would enable a complete unit to be changed with relative ease by a suitably qualified technician. The compressor must have a design life of no less than ten (10) years and be fitted with any and all safety devices applicable by local laws, codes or regulations. 1 Peltier (Thermoelectric) Peltier units must have a design life of not less than ten (10) years. Thermostats must have a resistor fitted across it in order to minimise the mechanical shock of repeated heating and cooling cycles.
The power supply and external heat exchangers must be fitted with thermal cut-outs and must be tested and comply with local regulations. Any fan (usually cooling) fitted to the Peltier unit must be designed to operate and start at a noise level no higher than 43 dB (A) with a back ground noise of 34 dB(A) measured at 1m from the front of the unit. The cooling unit must be installed in such a way that would enable a complete change of the Peltier unit with relative ease and can be carried out by an in house electrician.

Murphys Law

When deciding whether or not to to something Murphy’s Law should be born in mind. “ If it can go wrong it will go wrong”.

Night Tables

Designer to specify quantities of left and right units Co-ordinate with TV's, minibars and room safes. ID, Operator, owner 's representative to attend sample room review


National Sanitation Foundation

Office Chair

Sample specification: ergochair PRODUCT GROUP 6 Office chairs - desk (operator) chairs, typist chairs

6.1 Strength and stability (Heavy duty)

When tested in accordance with BS 5459-2: 2000, pedestal chairs included in Product Group 6 shall comply with the test requirements for chairs designed for use by persons weighing 150kg for up to 24 hours per day. 6.2 Strength and stability (Normal duty)

When tested in accordance with BS EN 1335-2:2000 utilising the test methods contained within BS EN 1335-3: 2000, pedestal chairs included in Product Group 6 shall comply with the test requirements for chairs designed for use by persons weighing 110kg for up to 8 hours per day. 6.3 Strength and stability (Visitor Chairs)

All items other than pedestal chairs included in Product Group 6 shall comply with BS EN 13761: 2000.

All items other than pedestal chairs included in Product Group 6 shall not overturn when tested in accordance with BS EN 1022: 2005 6.4 Surface finishes

The surface finishes on non-metal items included in Product Group 6 shall comply with FIRA Standard 6250:2005 Specification Materials (Interior) Table 2 Finish Performance the Horizontal surfaces (excluding kitchen worktops) Severe. 6.5 Finishes on metals

The finishes on metal items included in Product Group 6 shall comply with FIRA standard 4000: 2006 (draft) Specification furniture materials: interior - Surface finishes applied to metals. 6.6 Fabrics

6.6.1 Woven textile fabrics shall meet the requirements of BS 2543:2004 for general contract upholstery applications.

6.6.2 Coated fabrics shall meet the requirements of BS ISO 7617-1: 2001 Part 1 for PVC coated knitted fabrics and BS 5790: Part 2, 1995 = ISO 7617-2:1994 for PVC coated woven fabrics for contract applications.

6.6.3 Upholstery leather shall meet the requirements of BS EN 13336:2004 for general contract applications. 6.7 Flammability

6.7.1 Any urethane foam used shall be of the type commonly referred to as "combustion modified". Foams shall satisfy the test contained in Schedule 1 Part 1 of the "Furniture and Furnishings (Fire) (Safety) Regulations 1988, amended 1989 and 1993.

6.7.2 Combinations of upholstery cover and fillings shall comply with the requirements for medium hazard as detailed in BS 7176:1995. This requires resistance to ignition by ignition sources 0 (cigarette), 1 and 5 when tested according to, BS EN 1021-1 1994 (cigarette test), BS EN 1021-2 1994 (match test) and BS 5852-1990 Sect 4 and 5 – and incorporates requirements for durability of treatments and repeat testing. 6.8 Filling materials

Filling material of urethane foam type, shall meet the requirements detailed in BS 3379:2005, Class V for seats, Class S for backs. 6.9 Ergonomics and Health & Safety requirements

Items included in Product Group 6 shall comply with the requirements of BS EN ISO 9241-5: 1999, Part 5 Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDT’S); Workstation layout and postural requirements.

Office chairs shall also satisfy the dimensional and other design requirements specified in BS EN 1335-1: 2000, Part 1 Office furniture – Office chair: Dimensions and determination of dimensions. All items other than pedestal chairs included in Product Group 6 shall comply with the dimensional and other design requirements specified in BS EN 13761: 2002, Office furniture – Visitors chairs.

To subscribe contact FIRA Customer Services:

Tel: 01438 777700 E-mail:

Office Furniture Standards

To satisfy the strictest European Standards (CTBA, TÜV, FIRA, CATAS...). Guarantees: 2 years for the fabrics, 5 years for the frame

Operating Supplies and Equipment(OS&E)

Small items of equipment like flatware (knives and forks),silverware, glassware, chinaware, table linen,bed linen,pillows,kitchen utensils,luggage trolleys,coathangers, uniforms, housekeeping equipment and engineering tools,office equipment,housekeeping trolleys

Ordinary Cotton Fabric

Ordinary cotton fabric is not woven tightly and has less than 180 threads per square inch.


Small items of hotel equipment like flatware (knives and forks),silverware, glassware, chinaware, table linen,bed linen,pillows,kitchen utensils,luggage trolleys,coathangers, uniforms, housekeeping equipment and engineering tools,office equipment,housekeeping trolleys

Percale Cotton

Percale cotton is closely woven smooth finished fabric having a minimum of 180 threads per square inch. Most often 200 to 550 threads per square inch to give an even more luxurious feel.


Installation co-ordinated with project manager Natural plants where guest can touch them and where installation and mainteneance is possible
Artificial plants should only be located in areas not accessible by guest or where maintneance and plant growth conditions are not considered possible
Artificial plants should be the most realistic possible
Automatic sprinkler system and drainage for natural plants
Natural lighting where possible should be utilised to support plant growth and supplemented by artificial means where necessary
Must comply with local fire regulations.
Quantities and shape of pots will vary according to number of plants required


Make sure you know why using plywood may be your best bet! Solid wood has a tendency to expand and contract as the humidity changes and does not offer the needed stability when constructing the large flat panels (like table tops or cabinet sides). Plywood or particle board (made of ground up wood) is significantly more stable and less apt to warp or split. These panels will often be framed in solid wood and covered by veneers to recreate the look of one large piece of wood.


Porcelain is a type of hard semi-translucent ceramic generally fired at a higher temperature (1250º–1450ºC) than glazed earthenware, or stoneware pottery. It is white, but mildly translucent and can be decorated to provide colour. Made from china clay (kaolin) and chinastone (petuntse) .

Porcelaine for Hotels

Elegant, versatile, practical and strong. It should be impact resistant, dishwashing resistant, microwave resistant, knife scratch resistant Colour of filet or any design should be chosen by ID Alternatives incude white vitreous ceramic china ID, operator, owner 's representative to attend FB presentation at which final selection is made. Reinforced edges, chipping safe, a 3 year warranty against chipping is granted on most of our Hotel and Restaurant Cups should be stackable.

Porcelaine V&B

Properties for V&B Vitreous Ceramic Tableware
Product properties for : Vitreous Fine China
Units min. max. Water Absorption in % Boiling method A
Mineral composition of fired body % 0 0.05

Modulus of rupture DIN 51090
MPa > 80

Chipping edge resistance CEN/TC194W3 N113
Pendulum Machine Joule >0,3

Thermal shock resistance DIN 1184 Test B
Delta Temperature degrees ºC > 160

Translucency DIN 1184 Test B
2 mm Thickness % no

Crazing resistance DIN EN 103
Delta-Coef. of expansion / body to glaze *10-7/C 2 10

Dishwasher resistance DIN Prenorm 50275
Whiteware/ underglaze resistant
Inglaze resistant

Platefoot roughness µ <0.1

Microwave suitability YES >1000 Microwave suitability - metal décor NO

Flatware Cups + mugs pitchers

Pb-Release : <10 ppb <10 ppb o,5 ppm Cd-Release : not detectable not detectable not detectable


The purpose of the prequalification procedure is to ensure that only competent vendors take place in the bidding process

Prequalification Procedure

The purpose of the prequalification procedure is to ensure that only competent vendors take place in the bidding process

Print or Photo Finish

The least expensive finishes are “print” or “photo engraved” finishes. These are imitations of real wood and are just colored inks applied to a core material or paper to look like real wood. There usually is no real wood or wood veneer in this process, but it is how some companies achieve a very inexpensive product. Most of the very inexpensive furniture found at the lowest price points is printed.

Private Branch Automatic eXchange(PABX)

This is a phone system usually which connects a number of guestroom extensions to the telephone network. It usually implies a computerised free standing box in a central area. It is not normally part of FF&E or OS&E

Project Manager

Is responsible for the completion of the project on time and within budget to an appropriate standard.

Project Timetable

A detailed plan of major project phases, milestones, activities, tasks and the resources allocated to each task

Purchase order schedule

A timetable detailing when items should be tendered, analysed, approved and placed

Purchasing Agent

An agent who purchases goods on behalf of an owner

Purchasing Agent

Purchasing agents are the last checkpoint through which information passes prior to production of FF&E. As such they have an obligation to ensure that both clients’ and designers’ expectations/intent will be met by the vendors. Specifications must be detailed, clear and unambiguous and any changes must have a specification revision document. Finally, who takes responsibility when items are not made correctly or do not turn out as envisioned by the designer?

Quality Policy Example

Maintain position as one of the premier suppliers into the Hotel Industry Consistently supplying high quality products, to specification and on time to all its customers. Continual improvement of its products and quality management system. Demonstrating top management commitment to quality by clear leadership and the communication of quality objectives to all levels within the organisation. Setting measurable quality objectives at all levels within the organisation. Providing adequate resource for achievement of those objectives. Providing a systems approach to controlling the interrelated processes defined in the quality systems manual and setting responsibilities for problem solving. Moving forward with its partners and suppliers to the benefit of customers and other interested parties. Maintaining the ‘cost of quality’ at levels acceptable to the business. Monitoring customer satisfaction levels and addressing improvement opportunities. Providing controls for periodically reviewing this quality policy and related objectives for continued suitability. It is a requirement of the quality system that the foregoing quality policy is effectively communicated to all levels of the organisation. This notice shall be permanently displayed on all company notice boards Environmental Policy or statement shoud be included

Quality Terms

 * Accept / Reject Criteria This refers to the measurement and decision of whether or not the quality and performance of a product or service is acceptable. These criteria can be technical specifications (such as level of size tolerances allowed in parts), contract terms and conditions, or performance of a process or service. Implied in the term is the idea that all processes, products, and actions should have an assigned level of acceptable performance that one can measure. Consistent with the understanding that criteria grow out of process capabilities, technicians should periodically measure for acceptability to find out how well a process or item is meeting specification.

  •   Agile Manufacturing This is a set of flexible manufacturing processes that leads to the rapid design and manufacture of products that provides customers with what they want, when and where they want it. Using agile manufacturing rather than traditional manufacturing methods, firms can offer more customized products at competitive prices with no compromise in quality or damage to the environment.

  •   Continuous Sampling Plan This is an approach to sampling that is most appropriate for the output of processes that deliver a continuous flow of a product. In this plan, a company begins by inspecting 100 percent of the units coming from the process. After a certain number of items that have been inspected with no defects, the plan goes to inspecting only a fraction of items. This continues until the company finds a nonconforming unit. At that point, the plan reverts back to 100 percent inspection following the same pattern.

  • Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ) These are the extra expenses caused by delivering poor quality goods or services to customers. These expenses have two sources: (1) internal failure costs (from defects before customers get the product) and (2) external failure costs (costs after a customer receives the poor product or service). Rework, repairs, lost future business, and warranty payments are all examples of costs associated with poor quality.

  •   Cost of Quality (COQ) This refers to all costs involved in the prevention of defects, assessments of process performance, and measurement of financial consequences. Cost of quality is the cost justification of quality efforts.

  •   Critical Defect
    This is a defect that, based on experience, is considered hazardous to employees or to have the potential to harm or injure end users of a product or process.

 *  Defect This is (a) any nonconformance from a customer's requirement (b) any attribute of a product or service that fails to meet specifications (c) any state of unfitness for use. Defects are usually cataloged into four types by degree, being very serious, serious, major and minor.

 *  Inspection This includes the acts of measuring, testing, examining, or gaging one or more characteristics of the output of a process and then comparing results to specified requirements. The objective is to determine if the output features conform to the specifications of size, function, appearance, and other characteristics that may be relevant to the product or service.

  •   ISO 9000 Standards
    This is a set of quality standards developed in 1987 by the International Organization for Standardization. The three major areas of certification are as follows:

  • ISO 9001, which covers all the processes of a company from design and development to procurement, production, testing, installation and service.

  • ISO 9002, which covers everything except design and development

  • ISO 90003, which covers only inspection and testing.

  •   Lot Tolerance Percent Defective (LTPD) This is a way of quantitatively defining the relationship between the probability of acceptance by a customer of a product lot compared to the possible percent of defectives within that lot. This relationship shows that the higher the percent of defectives, the lower the probability of accepting the lot.

  •   Minimum Acceptable Quality This is the maximum level of defectives or variants in a specified quantity of products, components, or services that, for purposes of quality sampling, can be considered satisfactory as the average for the outputs delivered by a process.

  •   Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation (NDE or NDT)
    This refers to testing and evaluation techniques that do not damage or destroy what is being tested, such as products or parts.

 *  Q9000 Series
This is an abbreviation for ANSI/ASQC Q9000-1 series of standards, the U.S. version of ISO 9000 standards, adopted by the American National Standards Institute in 1987. They are quality standards, documentation, and audit procedures for a variety of activities performed primarily by manufacturing organizations.

 *  Quality Control
This term refers to those activities a company and its employees undertake to ensure that organizational processes deliver high-quality products or services.

 *  Quality Engineering
This incorporates the skills and expertise needed to apply statistical quality control techniques in the design and implementation of manufacturing processes to assure they operate efficiently, improve continuously, and deliver products that are free of defects and with minimum variation.

 *  Random Sampling
This is a standard sampling method by which random samples of units are chosen such that all combinations of these units have an equal chance of being chosen as the sample.

 * Representative Sampling This is a process by which samples are pulled from batches or lots of units so as to contain minimum bias between the values of the samples' characteristics and the batch, or lot, as a whole.

 *  Root Cause Analysis
This is a quality tool used for identifying the source of defects or problems, focusing on the original cause of the problem or condition. Root cause analysis involves a variety of techniques that define problems and lead to solutions.

 *  Sample This refers to a specific number of items of a similar type taken from a population or lot, for the purpose of examination, to determine all members of the population or lot conform to quality requirements or specifications.

  •  Statistical Quality Control This is a broader term than statistical process control, implying the use of statistical techniques to measure and improve processes and quality.

  •   Zero Defects
    This is way of explaining that there should be no failures or defects in work outputs. Philip Crosby popularized the idea, and it forms the basis of his idea of quality.


It is essential that a strict control be exercised on the delivery of material to the project. The number of cartons and their markings must be checked against the delivery documents. It may not be practical to unpack cartons immediately on delivery in which case the delivery receipt must be written on stating that their contents have not been checked. Deliveries must be stored in a safe location. This may be the banquet room. Any construction area may be subject to theft so security is particularly important. The checking of the individual cartons should be done as soon as possible preferably by the hotel department that will use them.

Recommended suppliers

Suppliers tried and tested and that perform to the required standards

Room Safe Standard

Note Room Safe Battery powered Simple to use Designed to accommodate a laptop computer With audit facility To operate a typical room safe i guest keys in 6 or 4 digit code . Each button touch gives buzzer sound This is confirmed on illuminated display ii Guest closes door and pushes close button iii To open guest keys in code and safe is open Digit operation only. Clear display (Card closing not approved) Reinforced Steel construction, Memory Function audit facility, 4 or 6 digit Illuminated display, Automatic door locking, 6x1.5Vbattery Steel : side walls 3mm door 8 mm It must be secured to wall normally at chest height and fixed to the building wall or floor by internal locking bolts Inside carpet Fastening method : 3mm / 4 bolts Low battery warning feature Capable of accepting normal guest items including but not limited to a PC 36cm wide, 6.5 cm high and 30cm deep. Must have mechanical overrider whose use appears on the audit trail

Sale of Goods Act (UK) (SOGA)

The Sale of Goods Act is the main piece of law helping buyers to obtain redress when their purchases go wrong. It is in the interest of anyone who sells goods or services to understand the implications of the Act for them and the responsibilities they have under it.

Essentially, the Act states that what is sold must fit its description, be fit for its purpose and be of satisfactory quality. If not the supplier - is obliged to sort out the problem.

Aside from the legal issues, it makes sense to comply with the requirements of the Act in order to build customer relationships.

Sample Approval

It is important that before orders are placed the Purchaser is quite sure that the quality and features of the items that he is buying are appropriate for the project. Sample of the equipment should be obtained and accessed.

Sample Room or mock-up room

Sample Room is needed for any new hotel project or major guestroom refurbishment. The objective is to create a guestroom exactly as the Interior Designer has designed it using his specified sources. ALL the interested parties then review this at the same time.


Solid Surfacing Material moulded into forms such as the Formica Solid Surfacing range of sinks and bowls.


To meet Health and Hygiene standards To be easy to clean, easy to install, hygienic, hardwearing, non corrosive and strong enough for its particular load. Shelving should allow good air flow Removable shelves for cleaning, adjustable legs for uneven floor, Post height 1675mm Depth:560mm Levels:4 Up to 1 m - 120 kg, 1-1.5m 100Kg/shelf- code 6601 Polyethelyne shelves Up to 1 m - 150 kg, 1-1.5m 120Kg/shelf- code 6801 Anodised aluminium shelves

Shipping Agent

A third-party company that handles shipping goods to a hotel project and from a supplier.


Typically, outdoor signs are used for marketing purposes or to direct visitors. They can be found on rooftops, walls, and awnings; standing alone by buildings; hanging as banners; and even displayed on the sides of cars and trucks. Indoor signs are usually hung from ceilings or attached to walls. These signs are usually created for use in a reception area or to direct visitors. Signs are also often created for trade show displays Sign lettering can be as straightforward as adhesive vinyl or as eye-grabbing as neon. Other materials commonly used for lettering include metal, wood, plastic, and foamcore. Lettering can also be engraved. While once quite prevalent, paint is now much less common as a lettering medium. Buyers also have the choice of many substrates, which serve as the backing for the lettering. Materials used for backing include plastic, paper, cloth, vinyl, wood, foamcore, glass, and aluminum. Mixed substrates are also available. Since sign materials come in varying levels of quality, you should inquire about their durability when comparing quotes. Accompanying warranties for the materials can also serve as a good proxy for quality. First, think about the distance the average viewer will be from the sign. In addition, factors such as as sign height, lighting, and time of day can affect how easily the sign can be viewed. Also think about the sign's expected wear and tear, and make sure the appropriate materials are used. Signs can be destroyed not only from weather conditions, but also from travel and general mishandling. One of the first things to do when choosing a sign company is to find one that specializes in the type of sign materials you desire. Although most companies will not claim any specialties in their advertising, many will in fact be particularly proficient at making a certain type of sign. You will often find faster turnaround, higher quality execution, and better pricing when working with such a company. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requires all commercial facilities (which include any building open to the public) to accommodate the special needs of individuals with disabilities by removing physical and communication barriers. This means that buildings such as hospitals, government buildings, public and private schools, transportation terminals, hotels, restaurants, and manufacturing facilities must meet ADA requirements in terms of signage design and installation. Many towns have specific regulations about the type or size of outdoor signs businesses may erect. If the zoning laws in your area prevent you from installing the type of sign you desire, you may need to apply for a variance to the existing code. Sign companies should be familiar not only with local regulations, but also with the process for applying for a variance.


Specification Sheet- Characteristics in non-scientific language : - 120 g silver plating on stainless steel - 18/10 stainless steel, 18/10 = high-quality alloy made up of 18%chromium, 10% nickel and 72% steel Features: guaranteed stainless due to its 18 % chromium content resistant to food acids thanks to its 10 % nickel content no problems with cleaning in the dishwasher suitable for sulphurous foods neutral in taste anti-bacterial effect, hygienic

Site Dimensions

Any supplier who is making items that need to fit exactly to site conditions such as case goods, curtains, and fabricated kitchen equipment must be responsible for measuring the site dimensions. In the case of carpet this should be the carpet installer

Solid Surfacing Sheet

A non-porous, homogeneous, composite material consisting of mineral fillers and pigments in cast resin. Solid Surfacing sheet material is available in a range of through-colour plains and patterns.


Standards Organisation of Nigeria Conformity Assessment Program

In Nigeria, the fulcrum of Standardisation and Regulation of quality for all products is vested in the Standards Organisation of Nigeria (SON). Established by Act No. 56 of 1971 and with three amendments in 1976, 1984 and 1990, the body corporate, has the sole responsibility for National Policy on Standards, Standards Specification, Quality Control and Metrology.

The Standards Organisation of Nigeria is an active member of the African Regional Organisation for Standardisation (ARSO), Codex Alimentarius Commission, which is the Food Standardisation Organ of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) and is also a member of the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO).

The Standards Organisation of Nigeria is also an intending member of the World Standards Services Network (WSSN), International Electro-technical Commission (IEC) and International Telecommunications Union (ITU).

SON participates fully in the programmes and activities of international bodies and appropriate UN agencies, in particular, UNIDO and UNICEF, in the interest of Nigeria.

Spare Parts

Vendors must guarantee the availability of spare parts for a given period, normally not less than six years.


A standard is a document, established by consensus that provides rules, guidelines or characteristics for activities or their results. (As defined in ISO/IEC Guide 2:1996)


A standard is a document, established by consensus that provides rules, guidelines or characteristics for activities or their results. (As defined in ISO/IEC Guide 2:1996) For core OS&E Standards I include * Specificaion Guidelines (functional and technical) which correspond to the requirements of the international hotel operator

  • equipment must also correspond to local and operators codes
    like fire, health, hygiene, environmental, electrical.
    Operator' standards to be used where applicable and where they are higher or equal to the local appropriate standards particularly in respect of conditions on health, safety and environmental.
Supply of Goods and Services Act 1982 (SOGAS)

DTI Information

The Supply of Goods and Services Act 1982 requires a supplier of a service acting in the course of business in England, Wales and Northern Ireland to carry out that service with reasonable care and skill and, unless agreed to the contrary, within a reasonable time and make no more than a reasonable charge.

Table Linen Typical Spec

I White 100 % cotton ii Drop of undercloth 30cm after 5 washes iii Same pattern for all cloths iv Square cloths for round tables v Final quantities and sizes should be appropriate to the final table mix vi PAR OF OVERCLOTH vii -- viii Composition :100% cotton ix Weight : 210 g/m2 x Thread count : Warp 33.46 Weft :29.53 xi Ref Ewart Liddell quality 98

OR 100% mercerised twisted cotton colour proof, no logo, no sign. In accordance with the decor of the restaurant 100% damask pure cotton mercerised - no logo - in accordance with the decor of the bar

Table Linen Typical Spec for banqueting

I Cloth to fit banquet tables purchased ii Final quantities and sizes should be appropriate to the final table mix iii 30cm drop after 5 washes iv Quality Ewart Liddell 569 v Composition: 52% cotton 48 % polyester -Damask white vi Weight 195 g /m2 vii Thread count warp 33.46 weft 29 .53 ALTERNATIVE SPEC Satin band 210 g/m2 Damask, pure cotton, cross bordered design Twisted 2 ply threads 30/23 50/2 White Finishing 2 hems 2 selvedges Shrinkage width 6% max length 8% under standard conditions

Table Top Review

The purpose of the table top review is to select the customer contact Food and Beverage Items. These need to be appropriate for the Food and Beverage Concept and coordinate with its interior designs or the outlets concerned. The other objective is ensuring the selected items can be purchased within the budget. Again all those interested in the selection including the Interior Designer should be present on the same day.

The Catering Equipment Distributors Association - CEDA

The Catering Equipment Distributors Association - CEDA - forms a network of professional companies devoted to the supply, installation and servicing of catering equipment throughout the UK.

The reputation and standing within the industry of a distribution company becoming a member of CEDA is immediately enhanced, and distributor and customer alike experience the benefits of membership. The strength of the Association lies in its adherence to quality practices and customer service.

The following is a brief outline of the support offered by CEDA

* Code Of Practice & Customer Charter * General Services/Permanent Secretariat * Training * Communication * Marketing Support * Annual Conference * CEDACARE * Catering Standards Registration Board - CESRB * Fellowship

Theater Style or Auditorium Style

Seating arrangement in which seats are in rows facing the stage area, no tables.

Time is of the Essence

Vendors must deliver when they are required to do so. Failure to do this entitles the Purchaser to cancel the order. The Purchaser may also cancel the order if he has reasonable cause for believing that delivery will be late

Towels for Guestrooms

White, by far, is the most popular color towel White has a connotation of cleanliness, can withstand the harsh chemicals and bleaches of a commercial laundry, and has a strong tradition in the hospitality industry.Today, most mills are using optical white bleaching to make white towels look even brighter. Problems with colored towels include fading.When the operator of a property puts a new colored towel on the same towel bar with older colored towels, the older towels, while they may look fine themselves, appear to be worn and faded when compared with the new ones.Also, colors will vary slightly from mill dye lot to dye lot.Lastly, the darker and deeper the color a towel is dyed, the less absorbent that towel will be, as the dye stuffs permanently clog a portion of the pores of the cotton that absorb water. However, some people feel that white towels give too much of an "institutional" feeling, and therefore want to warm up the room with colored towels.The only color really practical for hotel use is the closest to white - beige (also called champagne, ecru, bone, natural, or vanilla).This color will give the best compromise between the performance of a white towel and the warmth of a color.All towels must be washed before use to rinse out sizing agents (starches) not taken out by the mill in the finishing process.

Trades Description Act

Information from DTI

Trouser Press Tyical Standard

Trouser presses are approved by BEAB, tested by ITS (SEMKO). Full Type approval testing for electrical safety. Fire emissions testing performed by Building Research Establishment. Thermal decomposition testing with regard to Toxic hazard. European Norm (EN), American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Electrical Safety Testing - Note full set of International deviations. IEC 335-1, EN 60335-1, IEC/EN 60335-2-44 UL141, CAN/CSA-E335-2-44 EMC disturbance testing EN55014-1, EN6100-3-2, EN6100-3-3, EN55014-2 We perform life testing at our premises for all aspects of the trouser press (moving parts, heating elements etc.) BEAB certification for the factory is available.

TV Pay Movie System Standard Otrum

Typical Standard Movie System 1) Otrum Graphic - Interactive Television System Otrum Dynamic - Interactive Television System See also our web site :- Our ITV systems offer some 50+ Software functions / features for hotels...including internet access, Pay TV, and lap top connectivity - in addition to the more common functions such as Message, Welcome, View Bill, Wake Up etc. Our systems have an open interface meaning that integration to other systems such as minibars, energy control, locking systems etc. can occur - via PMS. Our systems are mainly based on cable modem technology - using the antenna network.....can often save on having to instal expensive new cabling (CAT 5 etc). We have an extensive EMEA distribution / service network via 8 subsidiaries and some 32 third party distributors. We have our own in house resourceful and competent R & D resources based in Arendal Norway.
2) Standards / Tests. Our system comprises of some main components:- Television (display), Head End equipment (servers, modulatorsetc) and Otrum ITV software. Modular construction. The televisions / displays / monitors are sourced from major suppliers such as Philips, Loewe and Finlux - who have their own equipment tested. Head end equipment is CE approved and tested for EMC regulations (each individual item). 3) Performance requirements for international hotels:- There are more than 400.000 hotel rooms installed with Otrum technology in the EMEA region. 4) We do not have ISO certification - we do have our own SOP (Standard Operating Procedure) documented. 5) Other information on product standards:- There are rules and regulations in various countries governing film content etc. Regional regulations. We also are channel and film content suppliers. We purchase films from major distributors of the film studios (eg:- Film Bank London). One needs to be aware of censorship rules / regulations in this area. We are major channel providers in the Nordic region.

6) I would also like to stress the words "modularity" and "upgradeability". There is a lot of progress being made in the area of display technology...and we are seeing plasma and LCD screens creeping into the hospitality market. As technology and quality advance and volumes of these products are increase, prices will fall allowing for greater use of such technology in the hospitality market. We keep abreast of this technological advance by allowing for a large amount of modularity in our systems - eg:- being able to vary type of display (TV, Plasma, LCD...). Given that most hotel contracts are long term (5 to 7 years on average), it is important that one has the possibility to upgrade the systems for new technology. This we can incorporate in our systems.
We highlight three operational concepts in our systems:- Service to the Guest - Pay TV, internet access, messages, View Bill, welcome, wake up, check out etc. Revenue Generation - Pay TV, VOD, internet access, lap top connectivity. Operational Efficiency - Hpousekeeping functions, Energy Management, Minibar Management etc..

Roger Ward Cell:- +47-48282224


The United Kingdom Accreditation Service is the sole national accreditation body recognised by government to assess, against internationally agreed standards, organisations that provide certification, testing, inspection and calibration services.

Accreditation by UKAS demonstrates the competence, impartiality and performance capability of these evaluators.

UL Underwriters Laboratories

Underwriters Laboratories® is an independent product safety certification organization that has been testing products and writing standards for safety for more than a century. UL evaluates more than 19,000 types of products, components, materials and systems annually with 20 billion UL Marks appearing on 72,000 manufacturers' products each year. UL's worldwide family of companies and network of service providers includes 64 laboratory, testing and certification facilities serving customers in 98 countries.

Mission includes:

* To promote safe living and working environments by the application of safety science and hazard-based safety engineering * To support the production and use of products which are physically and environmentally safe and to apply efforts to prevent or reduce loss of life and property * To advance safety science through research and investigation * To concentrate efforts and resources on public safety in those areas where valuable contributions can be made * To work with integrity and a focus on quality to enhance the trust conveyed by certification marks * To charge fair prices and invest in safety science and education * To invest in people and encourage our people to invest in themselves * To be a good example of corporate citizenship and social responsibility


Final style, colour, sizes and sex mix to be confirmed by local operations Local weather and temperature conditions should be taken into account when selecting design and fabrics The design and style of all uniforms will be coordinated with the interior designer and prior to final order the General Manager is to advise on uniform sizes Requirement is in accordance with preliminary staffing guide supplied by General Manager ID can suggest themes and colours + should achieve a harmonious appearance consistent with the interior design intent Detail design and fabric selection must be done by uniform specialist Samples to be checked for laundering. Wash test required Styles to be easy fit where possible, simple and neat with stylish cuttings. Off the shelp if possible Uniforms- "Fashion Show" required before selection made. Input required from designer, food and beverage/operations Samples of each line to be approved before and during manufacture. This should be made a condition in the purchase order. Male female mix unknown at this stage. Designer will require a schedule of the positions that will need uniforms and a note as to whether they can be stock sizes ( eg. engineering) or should be specially tailored for a good fit (eg. doorman, restaurant hostess). Some areas may require the same uniforms.
The quantities are based on a typical European hotel with staffing levels according to the size of hotel. This is not a set of specifications, but a GUIDELINE to be used in the establishment of budgets and specifications.

Upholstered Furniture

Check comfort & support, including whether head support is needed or not. Be aware of foam seating losing approx. 20% of its firmness in the first 3 months of use. Will fabric fade if subjected to direct sunlight? Some fade more than others. Do you require castors or glides?

Are you aware of the manufacturer's upholstery care guidelines & are you comfortable with these? Make sure that the piece has adequate padding with no harsh underlying wood edges, especially on the arms. If the fabric is directly touching the wood with no padding, the piece will quickly wear at that point Make sure the patterns are matched at the seams, on front edges and on back cushions. Matched patterns are usually a sign of higher quality. Make sure the stitching is tight and that no areas are separating (and no stuffing is hanging ou Make sure the frames are constructed of a kiln-dried hardwood for durability. Make sure the frame is joined using dowels as well as corner blocked, glued and screwed together Make sure you check the type of springs. Eight-way hand-tied springs are used in the base of better quality pieces. These springs are three-dimensional coils attached to webbing on the bottom of the upholstered piece and tied with twine at the top to each of the eight adjacent coils to keep them from shifting. The result is an even comfort level which never "bottoms-out" even when your linebacker friends sit on it. Sinuous springs are two-dimensional "S" shaped wires that are fastened to the top of the front rail and run down the back of the piece every few inches apart. The result is a somewhat "mushier" seat and is less costly. Keep in mind that, as a rule, tightly woven fabrics wear best. For durability, chose a high thread count fabric - meaning that the number of threads per square inch is high. Another general rule is that fabrics which have their pattern woven in wear better than printed fabrics. Most important, make sure you sit in the piece. It may be beautiful, but can you bear to sit in it for any period of time? Broadly speaking, there are five major styles of sofas/chairs: casual (overstuffed sofas, earthy colors, oak, pine, ash and maple woods); contemporary (bold colors, sharp lines, metal and glass); country (soft cushions, floral prints, distressed and painted wood); traditional (antiques and antique styles, wingback chairs, damask and chintz, cherry and mahogany woods); and eclectic (ethnic or artisan pieces, a mix of compatible styles and periods, highly individual).

Upholstered Furniture Armchair

Chair Upholstery Standards Upholstery foams should be fire resistant to the highest available standard. In addition they should be overwrapped with an inert barrier cloth.To be water,soil resistant,scotchguarded Upholstery is normally scotchguarded at the time of manufacture of yarn and not after the fabric made Upholstery fabrics should achieve fire resistance to UK Standard BS 5867 Part B Crib 5 or local equivalent. They should achieve a minimum rub test of 40,000 rubs (Martindale Rub Test). Fire code certificates plus cleaning instructions for all fabrics should be given to the Operator prior to commissioning.

Upholstered Furniture Domestic-

Fire safety

fire resistant frontDomestic upholstered furniture must meet fire safety standards, which cover the fabrics, foam fillings and non-foam fillings.

When purchasing any upholstered furniture look for the display label “ a swing ticket attached to the furniture, which should be easily visible. The permanent label may be located under a loose seat cushion or if the upholstery is fixed, secured to the base of the item or located at the junction between the seat and back.

Upholstered Furniture Domestic- Fire Safety
  • Upholstered Furniture Fire Safety Regulations “ filling requirements

  • fire resistant label Any filling material, whether foam or non-foam, intended for use in furniture, must meet specified ignition tests.

  • This means any material included for the purpose of filling or stuffing the upholstered parts of the furniture.

  • The UK furniture regulations detail the specific ignition tests for all resilient filling materials used within upholstered furniture.

  • Ignition requirements for foam

    • Urethane foam must meet Schedule 1 part 1 of the regulations. BS5852 source 5 and an FR polyester cover are specified and a mass loss criteria is introduced.
  • Crumb foam must meet schedule 1 part 11 of the regulations. BS5852 source 2 and an FR polyester cover are specified and changed criteria are introduced. The stock material must derive from Schedule 1 part 1 foam (provable).

    • Latex rubber foam must meet schedule 1 part 111 of the regulations. BS5852 source 2 and an FR polyester cover are specified
  • Ignition requirements for non-foam Non-foam filling must meet tests detailed in Schedule 2 of the regulations. The tests use IS 2 and the specified FR polyester cover, except in the case of pillows.

    • Schedule 2 part I " the non foam filling is tested as a single component
    • Schedule 2 part II the composite of materials intended for the furniture are tested in plied up form
    • Schedule 2 part III " the composite of materials with primary cover intended for either scatter cushions or pillows is tested in plied up form.

    • Schedule 2 part IV “ this test is for composite fillings of mattresses and bed bases. The interior filling of a mattress, divan or bed base is tested in plied up form. The test is based on BS6807 using apparatus specifically designed for bed product ignition tests.

  • Who bears the responsibility for ensuring compliance?

All persons involved in the supply chain bear the responsibility of this requirement. Foam producers and suppliers, furniture manufacturers, importers, retailers, and re-upholsterers must all provide documentary evidence that the material complies with the regulations.

Exception flame The only exception is non-foam fillings supplied to furniture manufacturers and re-upholsterers need not be fire resistant. This means that the furniture manufacturer and re-upholsterer are responsible for ensuring the material or material composite complies with appropriate requirements. The regulations allow non-foam filling materials to be tested either as a single filling or plied up in layers as intended in the furniture. So where the filling material is part of a composite the furniture manufacturer must ensure the final material combination satisfies the required ignition test. Where a material is to be used as a single filling the furniture manufacturer needs to specify his fire resistance requirement to the supplier prior to purchase Warning Urethane foams must always be tested separately whether or not they are subsequently combined with other filling materials in the product. Upholstered Furniture Fire Safety Regulations. Introduction Scope The UK Furniture and Furnishings (Fire) (Safety) Regulations is a legal document designed to ensure that fabrics and foams used in the UK are safe. In order to achieve its objectives the 1988 furniture regulations set six main provisions 1 all filling materials must meet specified ignition tests 2 all upholstery must be cigarette resistant 3 all covers must be match resistant 4 furniture must be permanently labelled 5 furniture must be display labelled 6 furniture suppliers must maintain records for five years

  • Where do the regulations apply?

The regulations apply to all items of upholstered furniture - that is furniture that has on it somewhere a padded area consisting of a cover over a resilient filling - including childrens furniture, sofa-beds, futons, bed head-boards and garden furniture, that are intended for private use in a dwelling.

Upholstered Furniture Domestic- Springs and Webbing

A number of suspension systems are used for upholstered seating The most common assembles for sofas today are a series of serpentine or zigzag springs, or elasticated webbing made from either rubber or fabric. Other spring systems used include fishmouth sprung front edge units and coil springs.

Serpentine or sinuous springs are fixed to the seat, back and arm sections of the frame, front to back, and securely fixed via various types of metal fixings or clips. Put simply, there should be at least five springs for each seat, dependant on the length. The frame fixing clips should be securely attached and someone sitting on the sofa or chair should not be able to feel any sharp edges through the upholstery. The suspension system provides flexible support for the seat, back and arms and is normally covered, which helps to ensure the user does not easily feel the clips or springs.

Alternately, rubber or fabric elasticated webbing can be used which provides a flexible support system for the sofa or chair. There must be a sufficient number of webs to maintain the support system. The webbing system may be interlaced across the front to back webs to give additional support.

The suspension is the major support system and must be capable of withstanding the constant initial impact of someone sitting down during the life of the furniture. Some sprung seat platforms incorporate a flexible front edge for improved comfort and reduced cushion wear.

Avoid anything that creaks or squeaks.

Upholstered Furniture Domestic-Choosing

Tips when choosing upholstered furniture

*upholstery Check the overall shape, look at the fabric and if pattern matching is important to you, confirm if this is possible if not obvious on the display model.

  • Feel the padding on the arms and back, and below the front rail. If you can feel the frame easily with little pressure, this may cause premature wear of the upholstery fabric.

  • Upholstered furniture should be tried for a reasonable time, in a way that you would normally sit, in order to assess whether it suits you. Remember foam softens naturally after the first few months of use until it finds its own balance.

  • Ask how long the product has been on display “ this will give you some idea of how the suite will appear and feel after a period of use.

    • Move around on the furniture and avoid anything that squeaks or creaks.
  • Sit on the furniture with your partner or a friend and check that the cushions do not push you towards the centre or tip you forwards. The cushions should fit snugly and there should be no gaps between adjacent cushions or arms.

  • The back should provide firm support to the lower part of your back. Check you do not have to lean back too much. You should be able to sit with your back firmly supported with your feet on the floor.

    • Remember cushions filled with feather or fibre will compress and crease and will need regular plumping-up to retain their shape.
  • Consider how much you will use the item and ask about the fabric “ is it suitable for general or sever domestic use?

  • If the furniture has a recliner action, check that the mechanism does not rub against the cover fabric as this could lead to premature cover wear.

  • Look for information labels or pamphlets providing care and maintenance instructions and/or details on the furnitures suitability for domestic use. Ask if you cannot find any. Upholstered furniture comes in many shapes and sizes “ ensure that you can fit it through your front door and that it will fit your room.

    • When the selected furniture arrives at your home, check that it is what you ordered and that it is fault free. Any problems or damage should be reported immediately so that they can be dealt with promptly and satisfactorily.
Upholstered Furniture Domestic-Cushions

Cushions There are three main types of cushion interior foam, feather or polyester fibre. Customarily, thin layers or sheets of foam are placed on the suspension system and covered by either the main decorative fabric or by a less expensive non-visible platform or lining cloth to reduce wear on reversible cushions. Thus a platform is formed for the seat, back and arm sitting surfaces of the sofa, according to the design, onto which separate upholstered cushions are placed. These cushions may be fixed, loose or detachable via a series of zip fastenings. Foam

Foam is a popular filling for upholstery. It is resilient, flexible, easy to manipulate, and can be moulded or shaped to meet the most complex upholstery styles and designs. Upholstery seat cushions are predominantly filled with foam. They will soften in the first few months until they find their natural balance and this is quite normal.

Foam seat cushions are often wrapped in polyester fibre wadding to give an even softer feel for initial comfort and to reduce wear. Feather and fibre

Modern upholstered furniture predominantly contains feather or fibre filled back and/or seat cushions. Both are popular for comfort because you sit in them rather than on them. But they do require a lot of plumping-up to retain their shape, and some people are allergic to feathers or the dust they generate. Feather and/or fibre cushion infills are often produced in sections to reduce the likelihood of the filling moving around inside the cushion where downward movement could be a problem. They are liable to appear ˜untidy after use but the original look can usually be restored by smoothing out creases to avoid premature fabric wear and frequent plumping for shape retention.

There is no universal standard for the plumping of seat and back cushions, and your retailer will be able to give you specific advice about care requirements. Qualitas recommends regular plumping.

Upholstered Furniture Domestic-Fabrics

Upholstery fabrics

Whilst all parts of upholstered furniture (frame, suspension, cushions and fabric) are important, the cover fabric usually attracts the most attention since it is the most visible element with the surface in constant contact with the user. The cover is subject to constant abrasion and flexing through body contact and will almost certainly wear out before the frame or fillings. leather sofa (courtesy p beele) Taking time to understand about fabrics will ensure that you choose the right product for you, and that it wears well for its intended location.


There can be a vast range of different cover materials to choose from. Durability is not necessarily proportional to price so it is important to choose carefully. The best guide to performance is whether fabric is suitable for occasional ˜light general, or severe domestic use.It is important you discuss your requirements, needs and expectations with the retailer.

A large number of fabrics meet the general domestic use standard. You need to weigh up the kind of use the sofa will get and purchase one with a fabric capable of meeting those conditions. Modern lifestyles make great demands on upholstery and the average family would be well advised to opt for a general or severe fabric grade.

Most fabrics in a display swatch are suitable for ˜general domestic use. Where this is not the case, fabric samples often have information on them about their suitability. If your retailer does not know the fabrics rating he can obtain this information from the manufacturer. Textiles are generally graded as follows:

* Light domestic use Fabrics for light domestic use are generally fashion fabrics; these are suitable for light, careful living room use. * General domestic use Fabrics for general domestic use are suitable for most styles of upholstery. * Severe domestic use Fabrics classified as severe domestic use are suitable for upholstery likely to be used throughout the day.

Leather Leather is a natural product with its own unique characteristics style, comfort, and durability. It will have been subjected to many environments and may bear natural marks and blemishes. The natural scars show that it is the real thing and should not give cause for concern.

There are different types of leather, classified as follows:

Aniline leather This is a leather that has been dyed to colour, but has not received any coating or surface finish. This has the advantage of showing the natural leather off at its best including evidence of natural marks and blemishes.

This type of leather may need additional care and is likely to show all the signs of wear and tear. It will take on a ‘lived in’ appearance, which is a natural characteristic and adds to the charm to the product.

Semi-analine leather This leather has a small amount of surface coating which still allows the natural characteristics to be seen, whilst also protecting against soiling and aiding the use of cleaning products.

By-cast leather (split leather) This is produced from the lower split of leather by melting a type of glue on the surface, then rolling on a film of coloured polyurethane. This varies in quality and can lighten when stretched and scratch easily.

Pigmented leather This leather has a surface finish that gives a more soil resistant and durable finish that is easy to maintain. A pigment surface finish also allows leather to be produced in a range of fashionable colours (this should not be confused with By-cast leather).

Nubuck and suede These leathers are buffed on the wearing (grain) side to give a velvet like nap. They are not surface coated and so are easily soiled, and the velvet surface can become flattened in use.

Antique appearance leather This leather has surface lacquers applied, which are designed to rub off in use and give an ‘antique’ or lived-in appearance. This is often pleasing and complements certain styles of upholstery very well. However, it should be borne in mind that the surface colour is designed to wear in this way; consequently the overall appearance will change more than with other types of leather.

The introduction of softer, more supple leathers alongside brighter, modern shades has increased the sales of leather furniture making them more popular than ever. A leather cover is normally expected to last longer than a typical modern textile upholstery covering. However as with anything, the lifetime of the leather cover will depend on the type of use and care it receives.

Upholstered Furniture Frame

A kiln-dried hardwood frame is a must in ensuring durability in your piece of upholstery. Oak, maple and ash and alder are woods most commonly used. A high grade of pine can actually be better than some softer hardwoods. It depends on the grade of wood being used. A good frame is joined using dowels as well as corner blocks glued and screwed together. The legs should be an integral part of the frame and center legs should be used for additional support.

Upholstered Furniture Natural Padding

Prized for their soft " hand" and versatility, the natural fibers remain popular as coverings for upholstered furniture. Cotton Cotton takes color well, soft and pliable, blends well with other fibers, durable with unlimited styling potential. However, continuous exposure to direct sunlight will cause the cotton fiber to disintegrate. In damp climates, cotton may tend to mildew. It is somewhat less stain resistant than synthetics. Flax/Linen With a strong, cool, crisp " hand", linen is one of the most durable fibers available. It has a tendency to resist color and is often found in natural coloration's as a result. Linen reflects heat somewhat better than cotton, but will disintegrate in intense sunlight. It is at the higher end of fabric cost. Wool Naturally springy and resilient, wool is extremely durable. It tends to take color softly and has good resistance to abrasion. Wool has natural stain resistance, but should be mothproofed before using. Silk Without question the most beautiful, yet fragile of all upholstery fabrics. Soft and lustrous, strong light will tend to discolor and disintegrate the fiber. Difficult to clean, the fibers will tend to mildew in damp climates. Rayon/Acetate Made of processed cellulose, can be woven to emulate silk or linen. Its low cost and blendability with other more expensive fibers make it a popular choice. The fiber is reasonably colorfast and abrasion resistant, but will tend to rot under long exposure to direct sunlight.

Upholstered Furniture Padding

The way a frame is padded will affect not only its comfort, but also its durability. Prior to applying the fabric, it is important that the frame be padded so that at no point will the fabric be touching wood. This will prevent untimely fabric wear and also add a subtle softness to the piece. Cotton and polydacron are the most popular frame padding materials. Seat cushions are filled with one of the following combinations of materials: High density polyurethane foam wrapped in Dacron is the most common (and least expensive) seat core. The density of foam and quantity of Dacron will determine the softness of the seat. Spring-Down cushions consist of innerspring coils surrounded by foam and wrapped in Dacron. This whole unit is then inserted into a muslin bag of channeled blendown. The springs give the unit support, while the blendown gives a luxurious surface feel. Blendown cushions offer the softest seat, utilizing a combination of down and feathers sometimes wrapped around a foam core and then encased in a muslin bag. This cushion does not retain its shape without an occasional fluffing. Back cushions are primarily filled with Dacron fiber. Encasing the filling in a bag will help the cushions keep their proper shape. Occasionally, in better quality pieces, blendown is substituted for a more luxurious feel.

Upholstered Furniture Padding

When choosing fabrics for upholstered furniture, keep in mind that tightly woven fabrics tend to wear the best. Durability is determined by the number of threads per square inch rather than the thickness of the yarn used. Generally, fabrics that have their pattern woven in will wear better than printed fabrics. There are many types of fiber used in the manufacturing of upholstery fabrics. They each have unique attributes that must be considered in making a selection based on the planned usage of the piece. In addition to their look and feel, factors to consider are wearability, cleanability and sensitivity to direct sunlight.

Upholstered Furniture Springs

There are two primary spring systems used in constructing upholstered furniture; eight-way hand-tied and no-sag or sinuous. In our 20 years of experience, we have not seen any warranty differences between the two. However; eight-way hand-tied springs are used in the base of better quality pieces and are often considered a sign of quality. These three dimensional coils are attached to webbing on the bottom of the sofa or chair and tied with twine at the top to each of the eight adjacent coils to prevent them from shifting. This system gives the product an even comfort level and has the advantage of never "bottoming-out" no matter how big the person is that sits on it. No-sag, or sinuous springs are two dimensional "S" shaped wires that are fastened to the top of the front rail and run from the front to the back of the piece every few inches apart. This spring system offers a somewhat softer seat and can be used in pieces that sit lower to the ground as in many contemporary designs. While less costly to produce, it is not necessarily the sign of an inferior product. The quality and quantity of springs utilized is more an issue than which system is selected. No-sag, or sinuous springs are two dimensional "S" shaped wires that are fastened to the top of the front rail and run from the front to the back of the piece every few inches apart. This spring system offers a somewhat softer seat and can be used in pieces that sit lower to the ground as in many contemporary designs. While less costly to produce, it is not necessarily the sign of an inferior product. The quality and quantity of springs utilized is more an issue than which system is selected.

Upholstered Furniture Synthetic Fibres

These petroleum-based fibers have been developed over the last sixty years as an alternative to natural fibers and are often blended with them in an effort to achieve the best properties of each. Polyester: a polymer that takes vibrant colors well. Polyester is strong and cleanable and stands up well under direct sunlight. Flame and abrasion resistant, it is often blended with natural fibers to soften its feel. Recent developments have led to a finely extruded polyester fiber that resembles the look and feel of silk. Olefin: known by many people by the trade name, Herculon. Strong, with natural stain resistant properties, olefin is a bulky fiber with a coarse "hand" that does not hold up well to direct sunlight. Often it is used to create heavy textured causal fabrics. These fabrics when loosely woven require a latex backing for added strength. Nylon: The strongest and most dirt resistant fiber, nylon is used often in commercial applications where it will take a beating. Until recently, nylon typically had a high luster, but now it is often available with a delustered wool look and feel. Its only drawback is its sensitivity to sunlight.

Note: While a few fibers have flame retardant properties, most others must be treated with fire retardant chemicals prior to being used commercially. Some states are now requiring this treatment on residential upholstered furniture as well.

Upholstered furniture- Domestic

There are many different styles, designs and price ranges. The temptation is to make the selection based on what looks good, feels comfortable (often after only sitting in it for a few minutes), fits in with the home colour scheme and meets the budget. However, strength, durability and maintenance requirements should also be considered.

Price is not necessarily an indication of durability.

Factors that should be considered when buying upholstery:

* The frame * Springs and webbing * Cushions * Upholstery fabrics * Fire safety * Delivery * Caring for your upholstery * Tips when choosing upholstered furniture

Upholstered Furniture- Frame

The frame is the skeleton of a suite, to which all the different suspension and upholstery components are attached. It should be well made, stable and strong enough not to break or give way in normal use. Frames can be made from a variety of materials, which can include wood, metal and plastic parts. But generally sofa frames are made from hardwood, or from a mixture of hardwood, softwoods in stress areas, chipboard, plywood or fibreboard. Many manufacturers combine hardwood and softwood. However this does not mean that a non-wood frame is a poor option these materials can still be used to make a sofa frame that is sufficiently strong and stable, but with a difference in the overall price.

Upholstery Domestic Caring For
  • Caring for your upholstery Proper care and maintenance will prolong the life of your furniture. Look for any available information it is often hidden and may be a label under the seat cushion, in the seat/back junction, or on the base. Alternatively it may be provided separately as a small pamphlet. If you are unable to find any information, then ask. It is recommended that care and maintenance instructions for the furniture selected are obtained from the retailer and should be followed in preference to any other advice. However, here are a few simple instructions:

  • Lightly vacuum upholstery once a week, less frequently for feather filled cushions. Dust removal may be improved by pre-brushing with a soft brush. Accumulated dirt will accelerate wear and dull colours.

  • Regularly turn and interchange the positions of reversible cushions on constantly used upholstery. This will prevent excessive soiling and uneven wear.

  • Zips at the back of cushion covers are there to aid the manufacturing process and do not necessarily mean that the cover is removable for cleaning purposes.

    • Smooth out creases in the cushions to prevent them becoming permanent and causing early wear.
  • Avoid exposing furniture to direct sunlight and/or heat whether direct or indirect for long periods of time as this may result in fading or degradation. Protect the furniture by drawing curtains and blinds wherever possible.

    • Avoid repetitious wear on small areas of the fabric, such as arms and front edges of cushions.
  • Avoid snagging the fabric “ pets claws, jewellery, buckles, zips/studs etc. are all potential hazards.

  • It is difficult to give general instructions on home cleaning since different fabrics require specialist cleaning techniques. Consequently using a professional upholstery cleaner is recommended. The effectiveness of the specialist cleaning will depend upon the degree of soiling so it is advisable to have this done before dirt becomes too deeply embedded in the fabric. We would recommend at least every 12 to 18 months.

  • Leather should be cleaned in accordance with the manufacturers instructions. The use of cleaning solutions or preparations on products for which they were not intended could damage the surface of the leather.

    • The best advice where care instructions for the leather are not available is to wipe the leather with a damp lint free cloth, using a mild soap solution when necessary as a last resort. The affected area should be rubbed gently until the soil is removed; never use detergent and take care not to soak the leather. Alternatively, contact the manufacturer for assistance.
  • Trim loose threads, dont pull them

  • Dont put pressure on unsupported panels of upholstery (e.g. outside arms and backs) and dont sit on the arms.

  • If accidental spillage or damage occurs, take professional advice to ensure it is dealt with properly.

  • Do not wash or dry clean the fabric of your furniture unless the manufacturers instructions specifically state that this can be done. Do not clean/wash only part of the upholstery where the product is designed to be maintained in this way, owing to possible colour change.

    • Ensure your furniture is professionally cleaned regularly.

Make sure you know what "veneering" is. Veneer is the use of thin layers of highly decorative woods on top of plywood, particle board or medium-density fiberboard (MDF). Veneering makes it possible to match grain patterns or use inlays to create designs that mother nature can't produce in solid wood. But beware of cheaper furniture which reproduces wood grain photographically. If it is photographic, the grain will be perfect, with none of the flaws of nature, and the grain will have no natural variations.

Vinyl for five star hotel

These should be 54" wide fabric backed vinyls with a minimum weight of 12/14 ozs/yd2 in guestrooms and 16 ozs/yd2 in corridors and public areas.

Vinyl Wall Cover

Vinyl wall cover -12, 24, 16 oz /yd2

Wall vinyl

PVC is the common abbreviation for polyvinyl chloride, one member of a large class of polymers called vinyls. Vinyl constitutes one of the most versatile groups of plastics, which range in form from soft flexible sheeting to hard, rigid structures, either of which may be solid or cellular (foam). PVC and its derivatives are the second highest tonnage plastic in the world.


The length and nature of the warranty should be adapted to the particular product being ordered. In the case of carpet the supplier should warrant its product against normal wear and tear for six years.

What is FF&E?

Furniture Fixtures & Equipment.

What is OS&E?

Hotel Operating Supplies and Equipment. The same as HOE.

Why buy in UK

Stringent standards of environmental management and health and safety control are in place in all of our member companies factories. This will provide significant peace of mind for the “ethically and morally aware consumer”. Design is a major priority for British furniture manufacturers and whether your taste is traditional, classical reproduction, cutting-edge contemporary or anything in between you can find it within the pages of this website, having been produced in Great Britain. After sales service is more reliable and more efficient when dealing with a product manufactured in Britain. British companies put their reputation to not only providing the best furniture but also the best service to you the consumer. Be aware of foam seating losing approx. 20% of its firmness in the first 3 months of use.

Wood based boards

Wood based boards are used almost everywhere, there are three main types;

Laminated Board. Differing wood grain is used for each layer and is then glued together giving the wood increased rigidity. Types of laminated wood include plywood and blockboard.

Particle Boards: For example wood chipboard or flexboard. Here raw material is processed to produce particles of varying size and is then bonded with a resin binder.

Fibre Boards: Types of fibreboard are differentiated by the size and type of wood fibres used, the method of drying, what type of bonding agent is used and the method by which it is pressed into shape.

Medium Density Fibreboard is manufactured by a dry process at a lower temperature than for example hardboard, another type of fibreboard. The effect of this is that the natural glues and resins contained within the wood are rendered ineffective. MDF therefore uses manufactured bonding agents and resins. Varying density boards with differing finishes are used for various end uses.